ITEMS IN FPM WITH MESH TERM:
Pros and Cons of Genetic Screening for Breast Cancer - Editorials
Caretaker Burnout: Supporting Families of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic disease that affects a substantial number of Americans. Obesity significantly increases a person's risk of cardiovascular diseases and morbidity. Modification of lifestyle behaviors that contribute to obesity (e.g., inappropriate diet and inactivity) is the cornerstone of treatment. Behavior modification involves using such techniques as self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management and social support to systematically alter obesity-related behaviors. In addition, adjunctive pharmacotherapy can play an important role in the routine medical management of obesity.
ABSTRACT: Proteinuria is a common finding in adults in primary care practice. An algorithmic approach can be used to differentiate benign causes of proteinuria from rarer, more serious disorders. Benign causes include fever, intense activity or exercise, dehydration, emotional stress and acute illness. More serious causes include glomerulonephritis and multiple myeloma. Alkaline, dilute or concentrated urine; gross hematuria; and the presence of mucus, semen or white blood cells can cause a dipstick urinalysis to be falsely positive for protein. Of the three pathophysiologic mechanisms (glomerular, tubular and overflow) that produce proteinuria, glomerular malfunction is the most common and usually corresponds to a urinary protein excretion of more than 2 g per 24 hours. When a quantitative measurement of urinary protein is needed, most physicians prefer a 24-hour urine specimen. However, the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio performed on a random specimen has many advantages over the 24-hour collection, primarily convenience and possibly accuracy. Most patients evaluated for proteinuria have a benign cause. Patients with proteinuria greater than 2 g per day or in whom the underlying etiology remains unclear after a thorough medical evaluation should be referred to a nephrologist.
Treating Fibromyalgia: Science vs. Art - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Leukocytosis, a common laboratory finding, is most often due to relatively benign conditions (infections or inflammatory processes). Much less common but more serious causes include primary bone marrow disorders. The normal reaction of bone marrow to infection or inflammation leads to an increase in the number of white blood cells, predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes and less mature cell forms (the "left shift"). Physical stress (e.g., from seizures, anesthesia or overexertion) and emotional stress can also elevate white blood cell counts. Medications commonly associated with leukocytosis include corticosteroids, lithium and beta agonists. Increased eosinophil or basophil counts, resulting from a variety of infections, allergic reactions and other causes, can lead to leukocytosis in some patients. Primary bone marrow disorders should be suspected in patients who present with extremely elevated white blood cell counts or concurrent abnormalities in red blood cell or platelet counts. Weight loss, bleeding or bruising, liver, spleen or lymph node enlargement, and immunosuppression also increase suspicion for a marrow disorder. The most common bone marrow disorders can be grouped into acute leukemias, chronic leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders. Patients with an acute leukemia are more likely to be ill at presentation, whereas those with a chronic leukemia are often diagnosed incidentally because of abnormal blood cell counts. White blood cell counts above 100,000 per mm3 (100 x 10(9) per L) represent a medical emergency because of the risk of brain infarction and hemorrhage.
ACOG Addresses Psychosocial Screening in Pregnant Women - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Patients who provide care to family members or friends with dementia are likely to be in a family physician's practice. The caregiver role can be stressful, and identifying these patients can give the family physician opportunities to help patients cope with the challenges of the caregiver role. Family physicians have a systematic approach for assessing the degree of caregiver burden in these patients. Because caregivers are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, screening should be done to exclude the presence of either disorder. The caregiver's skill in managing behavioral problems in the family member with dementia should be assessed. If there are problems, family physicians should provide practical counseling about common caregiving stresses and about resources that benefit caregivers. Helping the caregiver learn strategies for coping with difficulties may help reduce some of the stress the caregiver is experiencing.
Caring for Caregivers - Editorials
Caregiver Care - Article
ABSTRACT: In 2009, nearly 66 million Americans (three in 10 U.S. households) reported at least one person providing unpaid care as a family caregiver. More adults with chronic conditions and disabilities are living at home than ever before, and family caregivers have an even higher level of responsibility. Caring for loved ones is associated with several benefits, including personal fulfillment. However, caregiving is also associated with physical, psychological, and financial burdens. Primary care physicians can aid in the identification, support, and treatment of caregivers by offering caregiver assessments—interviews directed at identifying high levels of burden—as soon as caregivers are identified. Repeat assessments may be considered when there is a change in the status of caregiver or care recipient. Caregivers should be directed to appropriate resources for support, including national caregiving organizations, local area agencies on aging, Web sites, and respite care. Psychoeducational, skills-training, and therapeutic counseling interventions for caregivers of patients with chronic conditions such as dementia, cancer, stroke, and heart failure have shown small to moderate success in decreasing caregiver burden and increasing caregiver quality of life. Further research is needed to further identify strategies to offset caregiver stress, depression, and poor health outcomes. Additional support and anticipatory guidance for the care recipient and caregiver are particularly helpful during care transitions and at the care recipient’s end of life.