Items in FPM with MESH term: Vaginal Smears
ABSTRACT: Atypical glandular cells on Papanicolaou smears are an unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The Bethesda system classifies atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) as glandular cells that demonstrate nuclear atypia appearing to exceed reactive or reparative changes but lacking unequivocal features of adenocarcinoma. AGUS occurs in approximately 0.18 to 0.74 percent of all cervical smears. Because of the high likelihood that AGUS is associated with significant clinical disease, simply repeating the Papanicolaou smear is not sufficient for the management of AGUS. Unlike women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, a significant percentage of women with AGUS will have more serious lesions, such as high-grade preinvasive squamous disease, adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma or invasive cancers from sites other than the cervix. Colposcopic examination is recommended for all women with a cytologic diagnosis of AGUS. Those women with AGUS that is suspicious for adenocarcinoma should undergo cervical conization, even in the absence of detectable abnormalities on colposcopic examination.
New Tests for Cervical Cancer Screening - Article
ABSTRACT: The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has been used to screen women for cervical cancer since 1940. Recently, a number of new technologies have been developed to improve the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, there is substantial controversy about whether the new tests offer meaningful advantages over the conventional Pap smear. Ideally, these new tests will increase the early detection of meaningful Pap smear abnormalities, reduce the number of unsatisfactory smears and provide fewer ambiguous results. It is also hoped that these new screening methods will not increase the number of false-positive results, but will improve the productivity of cytology laboratories without substantially increasing costs. The new tests include liquid-based/thin-layer preparations to improve the quality and adequacy of the Pap smear; computer-assisted screening methods to improve Pap smear interpretation; and new-generation human papillomavirus testing methods that may be useful in triaging patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Evidence on these new tests is reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of their use are discussed.
The 2001 Bethesda System Terminology - Article
ABSTRACT: The 2001 Bethesda System for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses is an incremental change in the uniform terminology introduced in 1988 and revised in 1991. The 2001 Bethesda System includes specific statements about specimen adequacy, general categorization, and interpretation and results. In the adequacy category, "satisfactory" and "unsatisfactory" are retained, but "satisfactory but limited by" is eliminated. The new category of "atypical squamous cells" (ASC) replaces the category of "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) and is divided into qualifiers of (1) ASC of "undetermined significance" (ASC-US) and (2) "cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)," or (ASC-H). The categories of ASCUS, "favor reactive" and "favor neoplasia" are eliminated. The terminology for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and HSILs remains unchanged. The category of "atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance" (AGUS) is eliminated to avoid confusion with ASCUS and is replaced by the term "atypical glandular cells" (AGC), with attempts to identify whether the origin of the cells is endometrial, endocervical, or unqualified. "Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ" and "AGC, favor neoplastic" are included as separate AGC categories. The presence of normal or abnormal endometrial cells is to be reported in women who are at least 40 years of age. Educational notes and comments on ancillary testing may be added as appropriate.
ABSTRACT: The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology developed guidelines in 2001 for the management of cervical cytologic abnormalities. The guidelines incorporate the Bethesda System 2001 terminology and data from randomized studies of atypical squamous cells, low-grade intraepithelial lesions, human papillomavirus testing, and liquid-based cytology to formulate evidence-based recommendations. Each recommendation is graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the quality of the evidence, and specific terminology is added to highlight management options. The effectiveness of each triage recommendation is determined by the percentage of grade 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia it detects. Colposcopy, repeat cytology, and human papillomavirus DNA testing are acceptable options in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, but human papillomavirus DNA testing is preferred if liquid-based cytology is used. Colposcopy is recommended for women with a diagnosis of "atypical squamous cells-cannot rule out high-grade intraepithelial lesion." Women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions should be referred for colposcopy, and women with high-grade lesions should undergo colposcopy and endocervical assessment. Colposcopy and endocervical sampling are recommended in women with all subcategories of atypical glandular cells. Endometrial sampling and colposcopy are recommended in women older than 35 years with atypical glandular cells and in younger women with unexplained vaginal bleeding. Women with a diagnosis of "atypical glandular cells-favor neoplasia" or adenocarcinoma-in-situ who are not found to have invasive disease on colposcopy should undergo a diagnostic excisional procedure, preferably a cold-knife conization.
Medicare Expands Preventive Screening Benefits - Getting Paid
New Tests for Cervical Cancer Screening - Editorials
ACS Updates Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer - Practice Guidelines
Rethinking the Gynecologic Examination - Curbside Consultation
ACOG Releases Guidelines on Cervical Cytology Screening - Practice Guidelines
Screening for Cervical Cancer - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force