Research shows that countries that emphasize primary care have better health outcomes at lower costs. As the United States struggles to improve health care delivery, it is clear that primary care providers, especially family physicians, are key to a more effective system.
The Institute of Medicine defines primary care as “the provision of integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community.” According to the 20th report of the Council on Graduate Medical Education (COGME) on Advancing Primary Care(www.hrsa.gov), research shows that health care outcomes and costs in the United States are strongly linked to the availability of primary care physicians. Patients with access to a regular primary care physician have lower overall health care costs than those without one, and health outcomes improve.
Research shows that preventive care, care coordination for the chronically ill, and continuity of care – all hallmarks of primary care medicine – can achieve better health outcomes and cost savings. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, health care reform is moving in a direction that puts primary care at the forefront of the U.S. health care system through the implementation of measures that:
Simply put, primary care is the backbone of the health care system. Utilizing primary care physicians puts an emphasis on the physician-patient relationship by shifting the focus from physician-centered care to patient-centered care.
Of the primary care specialties (family medicine, general internal medicine, and pediatrics), family physicians provide the most care, managing nearly one-fourth of all primary care visits. Given the scope of family medicine, this comes as no surprise.
Family medicine is a three-dimensional specialty, incorporating:
At the center of the process element is the patient-physician relationship with the patient viewed in the context of the family. It is the extent to which this relationship is valued, developed, nurtured, and maintained that distinguishes family medicine from all other specialties.
Family physicians integrate the biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences to provide continuing and comprehensive health care. Unlike pediatricians, who only provide care for children, and internists, who only provide care for adults, family medicine encompasses all ages, sexes, each organ system, and every disease entity. Family physicians also pay special attention to their patients’ lives within the context of family and the community. While there are similarities between family medicine and the other primary care specialties, family physicians have an unprecedented opportunity to have an impact on the health of an individual patient over that person’s entire lifetime.
The case for maintaining an adequate family physician workforce is strong. Studies reveal that:
Recruitment data indicate that family physicians are in demand. According to Merritt, Hawkins & Associates, family physicians have been the most recruited physicians for hospitals, medical groups, and health care organizations for eight years in a row (see table).
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