Clinical Preventive Service Recommendation

Vitamin Supplementation

Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of the use of multivitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of the use of single- or paired-nutrient supplements (with the exception of beta-carotene and vitamin E) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

The AAFP recommends against the use of beta-carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: D recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Premenopausal Women or Men

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in premenopausal women or in men. (2013)

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Noninstitutionalized Postmenopausal Women

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of daily supplementation with >400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women. (2013)

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Noninstitutionalized Postmenopausal Women

The AAFP recommends against daily supplementation with ≤400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women. (2013)

(Grade: D recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)