Clinical Preventive Service Recommendation

Vitamin Supplementation

Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of the use of multivitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of the use of single- or paired-nutrient supplements (with the exception of beta-carotene and vitamin E) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

The AAFP recommends against the use of beta-carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

(Grade: D recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/grades.htm#drec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf14/vitasupp/vitasuppfinalrs.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Premenopausal Women or Men

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in premenopausal women or in men. (2013)

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Noninstitutionalized Postmenopausal Women

The AAFP concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of daily supplementation with >400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women. (2013)

(Grade: I recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation, Prevention of Fractures in Noninstitutionalized Postmenopausal Women

The AAFP recommends against daily supplementation with ≤400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women. (2013)

(Grade: D recommendation)
Grade Definition: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/gradespost.htm#arec(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
Clinical Considerations: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/finalrecvitd.htm#consider(www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)


These recommendations are provided only as assistance for physicians making clinical decisions regarding the care of their patients. As such, they cannot substitute for the individual judgment brought to each clinical situation by the patient's family physician. As with all clinical reference resources, they reflect the best understanding of the science of medicine at the time of publication, but they should be used with the clear understanding that continued research may result in new knowledge and recommendations. These recommendations are only one element in the complex process of improving the health of America. To be effective, the recommendations must be implemented.