• Understand Microbial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Information provided by Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Paratek

    What Is Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)?

    AMR is a growing problem that threatens our ability to effectively prevent and treat an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi.1,2

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), antibiotic resistance contributes to at least 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections and 35,000 deaths each year in the United States.1

    AMR develops when microorganisms and parasites evolve to withstand the effects of antimicrobial therapies that would have previously killed them or prevented their growth.1,3,4

    An example of this is antibiotic resistance, which emerges when bacteria develop characteristics that allow them to survive exposure to the antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections, eventually making them ineffective.5

    Action to halt the evolution and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms, coupled with the innovative research and development of novel agents, is vital if we are to maintain an effective repertoire of antimicrobials to treat infection.6

    What Is Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)?

    Pneumonia is an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma caused by viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, causing mild to severe illness, affecting people at any age.7-9

    CAP refers to cases of pneumonia that develop in patients outside of the healthcare setting and is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S.10 Together with influenza, pneumonia was the eighth leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2018.11

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen in patients with CAP and has been classified by the CDC as a serious threat based on the current rates of resistance to commonly used antibiotics, including azithromycin, doxycycline, and penicillin.1,12

    What Are Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs)?

    SSTIs refer to a diverse collection of clinical infections involving the layers of the skin and its associated underlying soft tissues.13,14

    SSTIs are estimated to cause up to 6.3 million office visits, 3.4 million emergency department visits, and 870,000 hospital admissions annually in the United States.15-17

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounts for nearly half of all S. aureus-related SSTIs and has been identified by the CDC as a serious threat based on resistance to many first-line antibiotics.1,18

    The rise of antibiotic resistance underlines the need for the development of new and effective antibiotics to treat infections that have become resistant to existing medications.3

    Find Educational Resources for AMR, CAP, and SSTIs Online

    Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has developed an educational website to provide physicians and healthcare professionals resources to help understand AMR and manage CAP and SSTIs.

    The website provides relevant information on CAP and SSTI disease states, symptoms, diagnosis, microbiology, pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, disease burden, and the unmet needs, as well as additional resources including current treatment guidelines and recent antimicrobial surveillance data.

    To access the website and resources available, please enter through the following link: https://www.infectionsandamr.com/understanding-microbial-infections-and-antimicrobial-resistance-amr

    References

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/pdf/threats-report/2019-ar-threats-report-508.pdf (accessed September 30 2020).
    2. World Health Organization. 2014. Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112642/9789241564748_eng.pdf;jsessionid=E40AAE7E1E2792E6EC803299A9EE5F14?sequence=1 (accessed September 30 2020).
    3. O’Neill J. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: Final report and recommendations. London: HM Government and Wellcome Trust; 2016. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, chaired by Jim O’Neill. Available from: https://amr-review​.org​/sites/default/files​/160518_Final%20paper_with%20cover.pdf (accessed January 12 2019).
    4. Dadgostar P. Antimicrobial resistance: implications and costs. Infect Drug Resist. 2019;12:3903-3910.
    5. World Health Organization. 2020. What is antimicrobial resistance? Available from: https://www.who.int/features/qa/75/en/ (accessed September 30 2020). 
    6. Annunziato G. Strategies to overcome antimicrobial resistance (AMR) making use of non-essential target inhibitors: a review. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(23):5844.
    7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumonia. March 9, 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/index.html (accessed October 09 2020). 
    8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Causes of pneumonia. October 22, 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/causes.html (accessed June 30 2020). 
    9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fungal Pneumonia. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/pdf/cocci-fact-sheet-sw-us-508c.pdf (accessed October 09 2020).
    10. Musher DM, Thorner AR. Community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(17):1619-1628.
    11. Heron M. Deaths: Leading causes for 2018. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2021;70(4):1-115.
    12. Shoar S, Musher DM. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a systematic review. Pneumonia (Nathan). 2020;12:11.
    13. Pulido-Cejudo A, Guzmán-Gutierrez M, Jalife-Montaño A, et al. Management of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections with a focus on patients at high risk of treatment failure. Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2017;4(5):143-161.
    14. Tognetti L, Martinelli C, Berti S, et al. Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections: review of the epidemiology, microbiology, aetiopathogenesis and treatment: a collaboration between dermatologists and infectivologists. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(8):931-941.
    15. Pallin DJ, Egan DJ, Pelletier AJ, et al. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(3):291-298.
    16. Edelsberg J, Taneja C, Zervos M, et al. Trends in US hospital admissions for skin and soft tissue infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(9):1516-1518.
    17. Pallin DJ, Espinola JA, Leung DY, et al. Epidemiology of dermatitis and skin infections in United States physicians’ offices, 1993-2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(6):901-907.
    18. Ray GT, Suaya JA, Baxter R. Incidence, microbiology, and patient characteristics of skin and soft-tissue infections in a U.S. population: a retrospective population-based study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:252.

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