Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor

Health and Safety Issues for Working Teens


Am Fam Physician. 1999 Aug 1;60(2):587-588.

  See related article on working teenagers.

Am I at risk of getting hurt at work?

Yes, you may be. Every year about 70 teens in the United States die as a result of injuries at work. Another 70,000 teens are hurt on the job and have to go to a hospital or emergency department. Teens are often injured on the job because of unsafe equipment, because they were working too fast or working under stress, or because they didn't have proper safety training or supervision.

What Hazards Should I Watch Out For?

Type of workExamples of hazards

Food service

Slippery floors

Hot pans, stoves and grills

Sharp objects


Toxic chemicals in cleaning supplies

Blood on discarded needles

Human waste




Poor computer work-station design (causes repetitive movement problems)


Heavy lifting

Violent crimes (such as robberies)

Are there certain jobs I'm not allowed to do?

Yes. Depending on your age, certain jobs are considered too dangerous for you according to federal labor laws. (These laws don't apply to children working on family farms.)

If you're younger than age 18 you are not allowed to do the following activities:

  • Drive a motor vehicle as a regular part of the job or operate a forklift at any time

  • Operate many types of powered equipment, such as a box crusher, meat slicer or circular saw

  • Work in wrecking, demolition, excavation or roofing

  • Work in mining, logging or a sawmill

  • Work in meat-packing or slaughtering

  • Work where there is exposure to radiation

  • Work where explosives are manufactured or stored

Also, if you're age 14 or 15 you may not do the following activities:

  • Bake or cook on the job (except at a serving counter)

  • Operate power-driven machinery (except certain types that pose little hazard, such as those used in offices)

  • Work on a ladder or scaffold

  • Work in warehouses

  • Work in construction, building or manufacturing

  • Load or unload a truck, railroad car or conveyor belt

If you're under age 14, there are even stricter laws to protect your health and safety.

Are there limits to when and how much I can work?

Federal child labor laws protect 14- and 15-year-olds from working too often, too late or too early. Some states have laws that apply to older teens as well.

14- and 15-Year-Olds Can Work These Hours

Work hours

From 7 a.m. to 7. p.m. between Labor Day and June 1

Not during school hours

From 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. between June 1 and Labor Day

Maximum work hours when school is in session

18 hours a week but not more than:

3 hours a day on school days

8 hours a day on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays

Maximum work hours when school is not in session

40 hours a week, 8 hours a day

What are my rights?

By law, your employer must provide a safe and healthful workplace that is free of hazards. Your employer should also provide safety and health training.

You have the right to refuse to work if the job is immediately dangerous to your life or health. If you feel unsafe or that your rights have been violated, you can file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Labor. Remember, it's illegal for your employer to fire you or punish you for reporting a workplace hazard.

What are my safety responsibilities on the job?

To work safely you should keep in mind the following:

  • Follow all safety rules.

  • Use safety equipment and wear protective clothing when needed.

  • Keep work areas clean and neat.

  • Know what to do in an emergency.

  • Report any health and safety hazards to your supervisor.

Who can I contact for help or additional information?

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

800-35-NIOSH (800-356-4674)

Web address:

U.S. Department of Labor

Web address:

The local Wage and Hour Office

(Check under Department of Labor in the blue pages of your local telephone book)

Adapted from “Are You a Working Teen?” Rockville, Md.: Dept of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1997; DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 97-132.

This handout is provided to you by your family doctor and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Other health-related information is available from the AAFP online at

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.


Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

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