Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor

Testicular Cancer: What You Should Know


Am Fam Physician. 2008 Feb 15;77(4):475-476.

  See related article on testicular cancer.

What is testicular cancer and who gets it?

Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in one or both testicles. These are held inside a skin sack called the scrotum (see drawing 1).

Drawing 1.

Testicular cancer is most common in men 20 to 35 years of age. You are more likely to get it if someone in your family has had it or if you had surgery as a child to fix the position of your testicles.

How do I know if I have testicular cancer?

See your doctor if you have pain in one or both of your testicles, feel a lump in your scrotum, or notice that your scrotum is swollen and red.

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and check your scrotum and testicles for lumps. If you have a lump, you may need some tests to see if it is cancer.

How is it treated?

You will need surgery to remove the testicle with the cancer. If the cancer has spread to other parts of your body, you may need monthly exams, radiation, chemotherapy, or more surgery.

Treatment usually works well, especially if your cancer is found before it spreads. Even if the cancer spreads, you have a good chance of being cured.

What should I do after I have been treated?

At first, you may need to see your doctor every month for an exam. Later you will only need exams once a year.

You should also do monthly self-exams. To do a self-exam, place your thumb on top of the testicle and your index and middle fingers underneath it. Roll the testicle between the thumb and fingers several times. Repeat with the other testicle (see drawing 2).

Drawing 2.

You should see your doctor if you find lumps, hardness, swelling, or other changes during a self-exam.

Where can I find more information?

American Academy of Family Physicians

Web site:

American Cancer Society

Web site:

National Cancer Institute

Web site:

This handout is provided to you by your family doctor and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Other health-related information is available from the AAFP online at

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.


Copyright © 2008 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions


Oct 2021

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue

Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article