Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor

Menopause: What You Should Know


Am Fam Physician. 2008 Sep 1;78(5):593-594.

  See related article on menopause.

What is menopause?

Menopause is when a woman stops having her period and her ovaries stop working. This means she can no longer become pregnant.

When does it happen?

The average age of menopause is 52 years, but it can begin any time from age 40 to 58. Menopause can happen over several years. You are menopausal if you haven't had a period for one year.

What can I expect?

Menopause affects every woman differently. Some women have few or no symptoms. Others may have irregular vaginal bleeding (e.g., spotting), hot flashes, and vaginal dryness.

How are the symptoms treated?

Your doctor may have you start taking hormones. This may include estrogen or estrogen combined with another hormone (progestogen). Hormone therapy can help your symptoms. However, it is not for everyone. Taking estrogen for a long time can cause problems like heart disease and cancer. Ask your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking hormones. If you cannot take estrogen, there are other medicines that may help. Your doctor can help you find the right medicine for your symptoms.

Are alternative therapies safe?

Some people think that plant estrogens and herbal supplements are “natural,” which makes them seem safer than hormone therapy. However, there have been very few scientific studies to test this. Talk to your doctor before you use them, because they may interfere with other medicines you are taking.

When should I see my doctor?

You should see your doctor during and after menopause. It is important to get regular tests to check for cancer of the cervix, colon, and breast.

What else should I do after menopause?

You should quit smoking, lower your blood pressure, exercise, and eat a healthy diet. This will help prevent heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in women. Taking enough calcium and vitamin D every day can help prevent osteoporosis, which causes weak bones that can break easily. Your doctor can test the strength of the bones in your spine and hip to see if you have it. Regular exercise with strength training and weight-bearing activities like walking and jogging can be especially good for you.

Where can I get more information?

Your doctor

American Academy of Family Physicians

Web site:

National Institutes of Health

Telephone: 1-301-496-4000

Web site:

North American Menopause Society

Telephone: 1-440-442-7550

Web site:

This handout is provided to you by your family doctor and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Other health-related information is available from the AAFP online at

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.


Copyright © 2008 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

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