AFP Clinical Answers

Colorectal Cancer, Osteoporosis, Knee Osteoarthritis, Suspected Dementia, Pacifier Use

 

Am Fam Physician. 2019 Apr 15;99(8):478.

When should colonoscopy be performed in the colorectal cancer survivor?

Colonoscopy should be performed one year and three years after initial treatment for colorectal cancer, then every five years until there is no longer a benefit to the patient.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p331.html

What is the optimal duration of bisphosphonate therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women?

Oral bisphosphonates significantly reduce clinical fracture risk at four years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (T-score less than −2.5). Treatment beyond five years is associated with further reductions in fractures in women with persistent femoral neck T-scores less than −2.5. Treatment beyond five years in other women with osteopenia or osteoporosis does not result in further decreases in rates of clinical vertebral fractures, nonvertebral fractures, or mortality.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/od1.html

What therapies can be used for knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

Exercise, physical therapy, knee taping, and tai chi are beneficial. Medical therapy for OA should begin with full-strength acetaminophen and topical therapy, then proceed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selectively to tramadol and other opioids. Corticosteroid injections may be helpful in the short term, but evidence is mixed. Ineffective treatments for OA include vitamin D and antioxidant supplements, shoes specifically designed for persons with OA, lateral wedge insoles for medial knee OA, physical therapy for hip OA, ionized wrist bracelets, and hyaluronic acid injections.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p523.html

How should suspected dementia be evaluated?

In patients with suspected dementia, the Mini-Cog, the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition, or the Ascertain Dementia 8-Item Informant Questionnaire should be used to determine the need for further evaluation. The standard laboratory evaluation for patients with cognitive impairment includes testing for anemia, hypo

 

 

Copyright © 2019 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact afpserv@aafp.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions

CME Quiz

More in AFP


Editor's Collections


More in Pubmed

MOST RECENT ISSUE


Oct 1, 2019

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue


Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article