Cochrane for Clinicians
Putting Evidence into Practice
Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors vs. Other Antihypertensive Drug Classes for Hypertension
Am Fam Physician. 2019 Nov 1;100(9):540-541.
Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.
Should renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors be used as first-line drugs in patients with hypertension?
RAS inhibitors, which include angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and renin inhibitors, should not be used as first-line agents. Patients treated with thiazide diuretics have fewer deaths related to heart failure, fewer hospitalizations from heart failure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 100), and fewer strokes (NNT = 166) than those treated with RAS inhibitors. Patients treated with RAS inhibitors have fewer deaths and hospitalizations from heart failure than those treated with calcium channel blockers (CCBs; NNT = 83), although CCBs decrease stroke risk more than RAS inhibitors (NNT = 142). Similar blood pressure control is achieved with all three classes.1 (Strength of Recommendation: B, based on inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence.)
RAS inhibitors have been widely prescribed to treat hypertension; however, it remains unclear whether they are superior to other antihypertensive drugs in terms of clinically relevant outcomes for primary hypertension.
This Cochrane review included 45 randomized, controlled, double-blind studies involving 66,625 participants with elevated blood pressure (at least 130/85 mm Hg) and at least six months of follow-up.1 Mean duration of follow-up was 1.9 years with a range of six months to 5.6 years. The mean age of participants was 66 years and having secondary hypertension was an excluding factor. Of the 45 studies, 30 recruited patients from European countries, seven recruited from North America, and the remaining eight recruited from a combination of countries on different continents. Fifteen of the 45 studies reported ethnicity data; of these, 71% of participants were white, 23.7% were black, 1.7% were Asian, 0.3% were Hispanic, and 3.3% were “other race.” Participants with diabetes mellitus were included in 14 studies. All studies compared RAS inhibitors with other antihypertensive drug classes and reported primary outcomes of mortality and cardiovascular and renal morbidity. Secondary outcomes included degree of blood pressure control.
Moderate-certainty evidence found that, compared with thiazide diuretics, RAS inhibitors were less effective in preventing deaths or hospitalizations from heart failure and incidents of stroke. Moderate-certainty evidence also showed that RAS inhibitors and thiazides did not differ for all-cause death, total cardiovascular events, or total myocardial infarctions. When compared with CCBs, RAS inhibitors decreased deaths and hospitalizations from heart failure but were less effective in preventing strokes. [corrected] Blood pressure comparisons between patients treated with each of these classes showed no statistically significant differences. No trials reported on nonfatal serious adverse events.
This Cochrane review did not address which agent is best in patients with secondary hypertension, or with comorbidities such as diabetes. Further, it did not determine which agent should be used in those who need more than one agent. Finally, it did not address whether one class or another is best with regard to patient ethnicity, race, or age.
Relative Effect of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors vs. Other Blood Pressure Drug Classes
|Comparisons||All causes of death (95% CI)||Total cardiovascular events (95% CI)||Heart failure–related death or hospitalization (95% CI)||Total myocardial infarctions (95% CI)||Total stroke (95% CI)||ESRD (95% CI)||Quality of evidence|
RAS inhibitors vs. beta blockers
RR = 0.89 (0.78 to 1.01)
RR = 0.88 (0.80 to 0.98); ARR = 1.7%; NNT = 59
RR = 0.95 (0.76 to 1.18)
RR = 1.05 (0.86 to 1.27)
RR = 0.75 (0.63 to 0.88); ARR = 1.7%; NNT = 59
RAS inhibitors vs. thiazide diuretics
RR = 1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)
RR = 1.05 (1.00 to 1.11)
RR = 1.19 (1.07 to 1.31); ARI = 1.1%; NNH = 91
RR = 0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)
RR = 1.14 (1.02 to 1.28);
1. Chen YJ, Li LJ, Tang WL, et al. First-line drugs inhibiting the renin angiotensin system versus other first-line antihypertensive drug classes for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;(11):CD008170.
2. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):2275–2279]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):e127–e248.
3. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507–520.
These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.
This series is coordinated by Corey D. Fogleman, MD, assistant medical editor.
A collection of Cochrane for Clinicians published in AFP is available at https://www.aafp.org/afp/cochrane.
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