AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Medicine by the Numbers

From The NNT Group (thennt.com), these provide short, concise, evidence-based ratings of therapies, diagnostic tests, and risk assessments commonly used in family medicine. These rating are based on patient-important benefits and harms.

May 1, 2019 Issue
Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women
Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.


Apr 1, 2019 Issue
HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions
Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.


Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese
This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal lacerations, need for cesarean delivery or induction of labor, preterm birth, or postpartum hemorrhage. Find out more.


Feb 1, 2019 Issue
Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome
This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency department.


Jan 1, 2019 Issue
Liberal vs. Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Acutely Ill
This review compares liberal and conservative oxygen therapy in acutely ill adults and their effect on mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, and longest follow-up) and morbidity (disability at longest follow-up, risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia, any hospital-acquired infection, and length of hospital stay).


Dec 1, 2018 Issue
Early Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes
Does early invasive management help patients with unstable angina or acute non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in reducing occurence of death, myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, and rehospitalization at six- to 12-month follow-up? Find out.


Nov 1, 2018 Issue
Effectiveness of Intrapartum Antibiotics for Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid
This review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend prophylactic intrapartum antibiotics in laboring women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid because of the lack of difference in rates of neonatal sepsis between the antibiotic and placebo groups.


Oct 1, 2018 Issue
Hormone Therapy for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women
No benefit was observed in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Find out more.


Sep 1, 2018 Issue
Chewing Gum for Reducing Post-Cesarean Section Ileus
Although the current body of literature suggests a need for higher-quality, more robust research, the simplicity, frugality, and safety of chewing gum makes it a viable option to offer women undergoing cesarean section.


Aug 1, 2018 Issue
Terbinafine for Onychomycosis
Preliminary evidence indicates that combining terbinafine with an azole appears to be superior to terbinafine alone. Further study is necessary to compare combined treatment with terbinafine plus an azole vs. terbinafine alone.


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