AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Medicine by the Numbers

From The NNT Group (thennt.com), these provide short, concise, evidence-based ratings of therapies, diagnostic tests, and risk assessments commonly used in family medicine. These rating are based on patient-important benefits and harms.

Aug 15, 2019 Issue
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
High-quality evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not prevent mortality (all-cause or cardiovascular) or cardiovascular disease events when used as primary or secondary prevention. Find out more.


Aug 1, 2019 Issue
Flexible Sigmoidoscopy or Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Asymptomatic Adults
This meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing both reduce the risk of death from colorectal cancer. The study did not provide a clear answer regarding a superior screening modality, so the decision to choose one test over another should be a shared decision made by the patient and the physician. Read more.


Jul 1, 2019 Issue
Preventing Spontaneous Abortion with Progestin Therapy
The use of progestin therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss appears to reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and stillbirth, and increase the rate of live birth. However, due to issues with the studies the authors were hesitant to give progestin their full support. Find out more.


Jun 1, 2019 Issue
Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with COPD
This research fails to determine whether the modest potential benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outweigh the risk of resistance. Find out more.


May 1, 2019 Issue
Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women
Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.


Apr 1, 2019 Issue
HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions
Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.


Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese
This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal lacerations, need for cesarean delivery or induction of labor, preterm birth, or postpartum hemorrhage. Find out more.


Feb 1, 2019 Issue
Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome
This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency department.


Jan 1, 2019 Issue
Liberal vs. Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Acutely Ill
This review compares liberal and conservative oxygen therapy in acutely ill adults and their effect on mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, and longest follow-up) and morbidity (disability at longest follow-up, risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia, any hospital-acquired infection, and length of hospital stay).


Dec 1, 2018 Issue
Early Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes
Does early invasive management help patients with unstable angina or acute non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in reducing occurence of death, myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, and rehospitalization at six- to 12-month follow-up? Find out.


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