AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

FPIN's Help Desk Answers

Help Desk Answers from the Family Physicians Inquiries Network (FPIN) provide short, concise, evidence-based answers to clinical questions common in family medicine. The answers include a summary of the evidence and commentary that puts the answers into perspective.

Oct 15, 2020 Issue
School-Based Asthma Management Programs
Comprehensive public school–based programs providing supervised administration of asthma medication and/or education for staff, children, and parents markedly decrease asthma-related ED visits for school-aged children.


Jul 15, 2020 Issue
Acetaminophen for Pain Relief in Osteoarthritis
Acetaminophen is no better than placebo for relief of hip or knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Although acetaminophen does provide some pain relief, the effect is small and not clinically significant.


Apr 15, 2020 Issue
Ketorolac vs. Morphine for Pain Relief After Fractures
Parenteral ketorolac is as effective as parenteral morphine for short-term pain relief in patients with long bone fractures, and it results in fewer adverse effects.


Jan 15, 2020 Issue
Pain Medications Before IUD Placement
Topical lidocaine preparations including gels, creams, and sprays may modestly decrease pain with tenaculum placement but not during IUD insertion.


Oct 1, 2019 Issue
Thickened Feedings for Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux
Bottle-fed infants with gastroesophageal reflux should be given thickened formula feedings.


Aug 15, 2019 Issue
Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression
In women with postpartum depression, the addition of CBT reduces depressive symptoms more effectively than usual care alone (medication and other therapies), with a medium effect size at the end of the intervention and a residual small effect size six months later.


Aug 1, 2019 Issue
Skin-to-Skin Contact for Improved Duration of Breastfeeding
Skin-to-skin-contact in the immediate postnatal period should be recommended to all mothers because it is associated with a higher likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge and for up to six months afterward (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5 to 8).


Jul 1, 2019 Issue
Pharmacologic Therapy for Heart Failure
Compared with monotherapy, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB has not been shown to improve cardiovascular or overall mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure. The combination is associated with an increased number of adverse drug effects.


Jun 1, 2019 Issue
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Screening and Evaluation
The Conners Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire has the best combination of positive and negative likelihood ratios.


May 1, 2019 Issue
Risks of Elective Labor Induction vs. Expectant Management
Elective labor induction at 39 weeks’ gestation leads to a mean 145-g (5.1-oz) lower birth weight compared with expectant management, but there is conflicting evidence about the effects on rates of cesarean delivery, perinatal mortality, operative vaginal birth, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).


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