AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

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May 15, 2018 Issue
Maternal Obesity and Labor Induction
Pregnant women who are obese have nearly double the rate of cesarean delivery, and obesity increases the median duration of active labor by up to four hours when labor is induced. The difference in cesarean delivery rate is larger in obese primigravida patients presenting with cervical dilation of less than 1 cm.


May 1, 2018 Issue
Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Vaccines
The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; Pneumovax 23) decreases the relative risk of community-acquired pneumonia in adults by 13%. The risk is reduced by 28% in the population that includes adults older than 65 years, those with lung disease, and those living in a nursing home.


May 1, 2018 Issue
Primary Closure of Animal Bites
Dog bites can have a primary closure at the time of injury. Primary closure of dog bites does not increase the rate of wound infections compared with nonclosure.


Apr 1, 2018 Issue
Duration of Bisphosphonate Therapy
Oral bisphosphonates significantly reduce clinical fracture risk at four years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (T-score less than −2.5). Treatment beyond five years is associated with further reductions in fractures in women with persistent femoral neck T-scores less than −2.5.


Apr 1, 2018 Issue
Short-Term Antipsychotics for Alzheimer Disease
Physicians should consider not using antipsychotics in patients with dementia. Patients with dementia, including Alzheimer disease, who are treated with antipsychotics for any length of time have a higher mortality rate than those not taking antipsychotics.


Mar 15, 2018 Issue
Probiotics for Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety
A combination of three probiotic species slightly improves symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Lactobacillus casei alone does not affect depressive symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but it does improve anxiety.


Mar 1, 2018 Issue
Life Expectancy with Hospice Care
Patients with terminal lung, pancreatic, or metastatic melanoma receiving hospice care have a minimally increased life expectancy. Receiving at least one day of hospice care may increase life expectancy by up to three months.


Mar 1, 2018 Issue
Intercontraction Intervals for Predicting Timing of Labor Evaluation
Women at term who have at least 12 contractions per hour are more likely to be diagnosed with active labor within 24 hours. A reduction in the interval between contractions is associated with the onset of active labor.


Feb 1, 2018 Issue
Effectiveness of ACL Injury Prevention Programs
ACL injury prevention programs reduce the incidence of ACL injuries by at least 50% in a variety of sports, and should be used for all athletes. There is no evidence that any particular prevention program or component is superior.


Feb 1, 2018 Issue
OnabotulinumtoxinA Injections for Urge Incontinence
Detrusor muscle injections of onabotulinumtoxinA can be used to decrease the number of episodes of urinary incontinence in women for whom treatment with anticholinergic agents has been ineffective.


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