AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION
FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Clinical Inquiries from the Family Physicians Inquiries Network (FPIN) provide short, concise, evidence-based answers to clinical questions common in family medicine. The answers include a summary of the evidence and commentary that puts the answers into perspective.
Oct 15, 2018 Issue
Morning vs. Evening Administration of Levothyroxine
The effectiveness of levothyroxine for reducing TSH levels is most dependent on the timing of meals in relation to drug administration. There is conflicting evidence. In two studies, levothyroxine taken at least two hours after eating in the evening maintained or improved TSH levels compared with morning administration.
Apr 15, 2018 Issue
Antibiotic Prophylaxis for COPD Exacerbations
Prophylactic antibiotics may be used to reduce the overall rate of COPD exacerbations and delay their onset. However, the appropriate antibiotic regimen and target population are unclear.
Feb 15, 2018 Issue
Diabetes Education and Glycemic Control
Counseling by a diabetes educator or a team of educators delivered in a variety of formats may reduce A1C levels by 0.2% to 0.8% compared with usual care alone. Diabetes educators should be considered for patients who have higher baseline A1C levels (8% to 9%) because this group had greater improvement in glycemic control after diabetes self-management education.
Oct 15, 2017 Issue
Rivaroxaban vs. Warfarin for Treatment of DVT and PE
Rivaroxaban, along with the other factor Xa inhibitors, is as effective as or better in the short term (three months) than warfarin (Coumadin) for preventing recurrent DVT, nonfatal PE, and fatal PE, with no differences in mortality or bleeding events.
Jul 15, 2017 Issue
Treatment for Calcaneal Apophysitis
Several treatments for calcaneal apophysitis may produce modest short-term improvements in pain scores. Heel inserts and prefabricated orthotics may initially improve pain scores and dysfunction, but patients have equal improvement by three months with or without therapy.
Apr 15, 2017 Issue
Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure
Treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure using intravenous iron improves function, fatigue, and quality of life, and decreases risk of hospitalizations compared with placebo.
Jan 15, 2017 Issue
Giant Cell Arteritis: Biopsy After Corticosteroid Initiation
Corticosteroid therapy in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis should not degrade the accuracy of temporal artery biopsy if the biopsy is performed within four weeks of corticosteroid initiation. Temporal artery biopsy can be performed up to four weeks after starting high-dose corticosteroid therapy.
Oct 15, 2016 Issue
ACE Inhibitors or ARBs to Prevent CKD in Patients with Microalbuminuria
ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of progression to macroalbuminuria in normotensive patients with microalbuminuria and type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Jul 1, 2016 Issue
Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Respiratory Infections
A procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy algorithm should be used to decrease antibiotic use in adults with acute respiratory infections. The use of a procalcitonin-guided therapy algorithm reduces antibiotic use by 3.47 days without increasing morbidity or mortality in adults with acute respiratory infections.