AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Apr 1, 2018 Issue
DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Complications
There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo (number needed to harm [NNH] = 42).


Apr 1, 2018 Issue
Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular Events
Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.


Mar 1, 2018 Issue
Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding
In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.


Mar 1, 2018 Issue
Written Action Plans for Self-Management of COPD Exacerbations
Written self-management plans, especially those that include guidance on smoking cessation, increase health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. They also decrease the need for respiratory-related hospital admissions among patients with high or low baseline risk.


Feb 1, 2018 Issue
Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Care for Procedure-Related Pain in Newborns
Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, effectively reduces physiologic and behavioral measures of pain in neonates during painful procedures and has no identified adverse effects. Infants who received skin-to-skin care during painful procedures had a heart rate of 10.8 beats per minute less, cried for 34 fewer seconds, and had reduced pain scores immediately following the procedure compared with infants who did not receive skin-to-skin care.


Feb 1, 2018 Issue
Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain
There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failureā€”a designation that was defined differently between studies (number needed to treat [NNT] = 3). Injections do not appear to provide any functional benefits.


Jan 1, 2018 Issue
Effectiveness of Moisturizers in the Treatment of Patients with Eczema
Moisturizers decrease the rate of eczema flare-ups by 3.7 times vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4), as well as the amount of topical corticosteroids used per eczema flare-up (9.3 g less). Adverse effects are minimal.


Jan 1, 2018 Issue
Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood
Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.


Dec 1, 2017 Issue
Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea
Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based solutions may result in lower stool output in the first 24 hours and shorter duration of diarrhea than glucose-based solutions.


Nov 1, 2017 Issue
Topical NSAIDs for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adults
Topical diclofenac and ketoprofen are slightly more effective than placebo for relieving chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in adults. Evidence is lacking to determine the effectiveness of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs.


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