AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Aug 1, 2019 Issue
Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults
Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism from work, or adult hospitalizations, nor is there conclusive evidence that influenza vaccination decreases mortality.


Jul 1, 2019 Issue
Medication Management for Chronic Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce hospitalizations for patients with HFpEF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have not been shown to change the morbidity or mortality in patients with HFpEF.


Jul 1, 2019 Issue
Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection
When compared with serology or stool antigen tests, the urea breath test has the highest diagnostic accuracy to identify H. pylori infection in patients without a history of gastrectomy or recent use of antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors.


Jun 1, 2019 Issue
Alternative Interventions for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Men
In men with chronic pelvic pain and urinary dysfunction who have not responded to standard medical management, extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduces symptoms and increases quality of life. Acupuncture may also provide benefit to some patients.


Jun 1, 2019 Issue
Anticoagulation for the Long-term Treatment of VTE in Patients with Cancer
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants, when used to prevent recurrent VTE, have a similar impact on all-cause mortality.


May 1, 2019 Issue
Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile Women with PCOS
When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.


May 1, 2019 Issue
Saline Irrigation for Allergic Rhinitis
asal saline irrigation reduces the severity of allergy symptoms for up to eight weeks vs. no treatment. It is uncertain if adding nasal saline to pharmacologic treatment further improves symptoms over pharmacologic treatment alone.


Apr 1, 2019 Issue
Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CKD
Direct oral anticoagulants are as likely as warfarin to prevent all strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 3. They do not increase the risk of major bleeding events. The evidence remains insufficient to make recommendations for the use of direct oral anticoagulants in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 4 or 5.


Apr 1, 2019 Issue
Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects in Newborns
Pulse oximetry is an accurate screening test for critical congenital heart defects in newborns. Pulse oximetry is simple to use, widely available, and has moderate sensitivity (76.3%) and good specificity (99.9%). However, the prevalence of critical congenital heart defects is low, and most newborns who screen positive do not have a critical congenital heart defect.


Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations
Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).


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