Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations
Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).

Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children
When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).

Feb 1, 2019 Issue
Oral Immunotherapy for Egg Allergy
Providing daily, steadily increasing doses of egg protein over an extended period of time effectively diminishes the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic response among children with egg allergy.

Feb 1, 2019 Issue
Complementary and Integrative Treatments for Pain Management in Labor
There is evidence that all of the studied interventions have some benefit in labor, but the evidence is of low to very low quality. Massage, thermal interventions (warm and cold packs), relaxation techniques, yoga, and music reduce pain during latent labor, but not during active labor.

Jan 1, 2019 Issue
Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and Its Precursors
HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV vaccine.

Jan 1, 2019 Issue
Pharmacologic Interventions for Apathy in Patients with Alzheimer Disease
Methylphenidate may improve apathy in select patients with AD (mean difference [MD] = –4.99 on the apathy evaluation scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], –9.55 to –0.43), although the clinical significance associated with these findings remains unclear and the evidence is considered low quality.

Dec 1, 2018 Issue
Preventing or Delaying Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diet and Exercise
There is moderate-quality evidence that in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) defined by an abnormal 75-g two-hour glucose tolerance test, implementing changes in diet and adding physical activity together can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

Dec 1, 2018 Issue
Deep Venous Thrombosis: Home vs. Inpatient Treatment
Patients treated at home with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have lower rates of recurrent VTE than those treated in a hospital.

Nov 1, 2018 Issue
Culture-Specific Asthma Education Programs for Minority Groups
In children from minority groups, culture-specific asthma education programs (CAEPs) reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improve asthma control as measured by the Childhood Asthma Control Test but not the Asthma Control Questionnaire. CAEPs have no effect on overall asthma exacerbations in children.

Oct 1, 2018 Issue
Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and Younger
Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such as combining preschool policy with parental education, are not effective.

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