AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Jul 1, 2020 Issue
Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation
Patients using a combination of nicotine patch and fast-acting NRT are more likely to quit smoking than those on any single therapy alone (number needed to treat [NNT] = 29; 95% CI, 20 to 47).


Jul 1, 2020 Issue
Role of Mucolytics in the Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis or COPD
Oral mucolytic agents may reduce the number of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8 over an average of nine months; 95% CI, 7 to 10).


Jun 1, 2020 Issue
Potential of Fetal Fibronectin Testing to Prevent Preterm Birth
Fetal fibronectin testing may reduce preterm birth, although the evidence is not strong enough to recommend regular testing.


Jun 1, 2020 Issue
Emergency Contraception: Safety and Effectiveness
Oral mifepristone (Mifeprex), ulipristal (Ella), levonorgestrel-releasing emergency contraception (Plan B One-Step), ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel, and the copper intrauterine device (IUD; Paragard) are safe and effective for emergency contraception.


May 1, 2020 Issue
Antidepressants Plus Benzodiazepines for Adults with Major Depression
A combination of tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines is more effective for major depression in adults than tricyclic antidepressants alone in the first four weeks of treatment.


May 1, 2020 Issue
Lithium for Acute Mania
Lithium is more effective at inducing a reduction of at least 50% on the validated Young Mania Rating Scale compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6; 95% CI, 5 to 8; six studies; n = 1,707).


Apr 1, 2020 Issue
Pelvic Floor Muscle Training vs. Control for Urinary Incontinence in Women
Use of pelvic floor muscle training to treat women with all subtypes of urinary incontinence results in improvement or cure vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.4). Treatment with pelvic floor muscle training also results in one fewer episode of leakage per day and a reduction in leakage volume of 9.7 g per hour. Treatment is cost-effective, and risks are minimal.


Apr 1, 2020 Issue
Interventions for Reducing Childhood Obesity
Individual dietary interventions alone fail to change body mass index or the standardized BMI z-score across all age groups. The impact of regular physical activity or combined dietary and physical activity interventions is modest at best.


Mar 1, 2020 Issue
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation for Maintaining Cognitive Functioning in Cognitively Healthy Adults
Vitamin and mineral supplementation has little to no beneficial effect on preserving cognitive functioning or preventing dementia in cognitively healthy adults 40 years and older.


Mar 1, 2020 Issue
Music Therapy for Depression
Moderate-quality evidence shows that music therapy added to standard care is more effective in the first three months than standard care alone for depressive symptoms based on clinician-rated outcomes and patient-reported outcomes.


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