AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Oct 01, 2021 Issue
Schizophrenia: Use of Antipsychotic Drugs for Maintenance Therapy
Compared with placebo, using antipsychotic drugs for maintenance therapy in patients with schizophrenia is associated with relapse prevention at seven to 12 months.


Oct 01, 2021 Issue
Interventions to Improve Use of CPAP Machines in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Behavioral interventions increase CPAP use compared with usual care. These interventions also increase CPAP adherence, measured by participants using their machine four or more hours per night, from 371 to 501 per 1,000 patients.


Sep 01, 2021 Issue
Reducing Saturated Fat Intake to Decrease the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Reducing saturated fat in the diet for at least two years decreases the risk of combined cardiovascular events. However, there is little to no effect on cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, or individual cardiovascular events.


Sep 01, 2021 Issue
Pelvic Floor Muscle Training to Prevent and Treat Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Antenatal and Postnatal Patients
Structured PFMT beginning early in pregnancy prevents the onset of urge incontinence later in pregnancy and in the postpartum period compared with no intervention. There is no evidence that PFMT improves urinary incontinence later in pregnancy or in the postpartum period in pregnant patients who already have urinary incontinence. There is no clear evidence that PFMT effectively prevents or treats fecal incontinence later in pregnancy or after delivery.


Aug 01, 2021 Issue
Can Pioglitazone Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Prediabetes?
Pioglitazone prevents or delays the incidence of type 2 diabetes in individuals with prediabetes when compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 11.3%; 95% CI, 0.9% to 15.6%; number needed to treat [NNT] = 9) or no intervention (ARR = 13.3%; 95% CI, 11.6% to 14.9%; NNT = 7). Compared with metformin, however, pioglitazone does not reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in those with prediabetes.


Aug 01, 2021 Issue
Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System for Reducing Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is more effective than other medical therapies at reducing menstrual bleeding volume, with similar rates of adverse effects. The effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system compared with endometrial ablation and hysterectomy has been inadequately studied.


Jul 01, 2021 Issue
Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation: Surgical vs. Conservative Interventions
Surgical treatment for AC joint dislocation of the shoulder does not appear to be superior to conservative management in adults. Surgical therapy increases the risk of hardware complications, infection, and continued discomfort.


Jul 01, 2021 Issue
Rapid Point-of-Care Antigen and Molecular Tests for Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests have an average sensitivity of 68.9% and an average specificity of 99.6%. Accuracy depends on symptom status, time from symptom onset, and test brand.


Jun 1, 2021 Issue
Psychological Therapies for Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence
Are psychological therapies safe and effective for women who experience intimate partner violence?


Jun 1, 2021 Issue
Pessaries for Managing Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women
Pessaries combined with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) probably improve pelvic organ prolapse symptoms in women and prolapse-specific quality of life compared with PFMT alone.


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