AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Apr 1, 2020 Issue
Pelvic Floor Muscle Training vs. Control for Urinary Incontinence in Women
Use of pelvic floor muscle training to treat women with all subtypes of urinary incontinence results in improvement or cure vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.4). Treatment with pelvic floor muscle training also results in one fewer episode of leakage per day and a reduction in leakage volume of 9.7 g per hour. Treatment is cost-effective, and risks are minimal.


Apr 1, 2020 Issue
Interventions for Reducing Childhood Obesity
Individual dietary interventions alone fail to change body mass index or the standardized BMI z-score across all age groups. The impact of regular physical activity or combined dietary and physical activity interventions is modest at best.


Mar 1, 2020 Issue
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation for Maintaining Cognitive Functioning in Cognitively Healthy Adults
Vitamin and mineral supplementation has little to no beneficial effect on preserving cognitive functioning or preventing dementia in cognitively healthy adults 40 years and older.


Mar 1, 2020 Issue
Music Therapy for Depression
Moderate-quality evidence shows that music therapy added to standard care is more effective in the first three months than standard care alone for depressive symptoms based on clinician-rated outcomes and patient-reported outcomes.


Feb 1, 2020 Issue
Accuracy of Dermoscopy vs. Visual Inspection for Diagnosing Melanoma in Adults
The addition of dermoscopy to in-person visual inspection of skin lesions increases specificity and sensitivity in the detection of melanoma. In-person evaluation with dermoscopy is more accurate than image-based assessment.


Feb 1, 2020 Issue
OnabotulinumtoxinA for Prevention of Migraine in Adults
OnabotulinumtoxinA reduces the number of migraine days per month by two days compared with placebo in adults with chronic migraines.


Jan 1, 2020 Issue
Antepartum Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Length of Gestation
Omega-3 fatty acids, whether taken as supplements or consumed as part of the diet, reduce the risk of preterm birth (number needed to treat = 68) and early preterm birth (number needed to treat = 55).


Jan 1, 2020 Issue
Positional Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Positional therapy for OSA reduces scores on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale compared with no treatment. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves AHI scores more than positional therapy, patients seem to better tolerate positional therapy and, therefore, have improved adherence vs. those treated with CPAP.


Dec 1, 2019 Issue
Combined Hormonal Contraceptives for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
Combined oral contraceptives decrease the number of women reporting menorrhagia over six months compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction = 36.7%; number needed to treat = 2.7).


Dec 1, 2019 Issue
General Health Checks in Adults for Reducing Disease-Related Morbidity and Mortality
General health check visits have no benefit on cardiovascular morbidity or on total, cardiovascular, or cancer-related mortality. There is also no evidence that they cause patient harm.


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