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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental condition in U.S. children, and affects 8.4% of children between two and 17 years of age. Children with ADHD are at risk of long-term morbidities, including poor academic performance, low self-esteem, difficult relationships, substance misuse, injury, and other maladaptive behaviors. This article presents evidence-based answers to common questions about the evaluation and management of childhood ADHD.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in 7% to 8% of children. It affects academic achievement and socioemotional well-being. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) updated guidelines to emphasize evaluation for comorbid conditions and overcoming systemic barriers to increase treatment equity.
Sep 1, 2019 Issue
Use of Amphetamines for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults [Cochrane for Clinicians]
Amphetamines provide a clinician-rated 30% or greater reduction in ADHD symptoms when compared with placebo (number needed to treat = 5).
Jun 1, 2019 Issue
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Screening and Evaluation [FPIN's Help Desk Answers]
The Conners Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire has the best combination of positive and negative likelihood ratios.
High school students who reported a high frequency (many times per day) of digital media use (e.g., social networking, streaming movies or music, texting) were significantly more likely to self-report symptoms of ADHD over two years of follow-up (10% higher symptom reporting rate).
Sep 1, 2015 Issue
Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents [Cochrane for Clinicians]
TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.
Apr 1, 2015 Issue
Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for the Treatment of ADHD in Adults [Cochrane for Clinicians]
In adults with ADHD, immediate-release methylphenidate improves symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness compared with placebo. Short-term adverse effects such as weight loss and decreased appetite do not appear to be serious. However, larger studies of longer duration are needed to evaluate for cardiovascular outcomes.
Learn how to appropriately evaluate for ADHD and what treatments work for different age groups.
Behavior therapy interventions, such as parent training, are first-line treatment for ADHD in preschool-aged children (three to five years of age). Medication is an option for children with moderate to severe ADHD if behavior therapy has not been effective and if the benefits outweigh the harms.
Aug 15, 2013 Issue
ADHD Interventions in Children Younger Than Six Years [Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews]
What are the potential benefits and adverse effects associated with treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool-aged children (younger than six years)?