ITEMS IN AFP WITH KEYWORD:
Approximately 1% of primary care office visits are for chest pain. Initial evaluation is based on determining whether the patient needs to be referred to a higher level of care to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Age, sex, and type of chest pain can predict the likelihood of coronary artery disease. Patients with suspicion of ACS should be transported to the emergency department. Those with low or intermediate risk can undergo outpatient testing. In those with low suspicion for ACS, consider costochondritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and anxiety states. Other less common considerations include acute pericarditis, pneumonia, and heart failure.
Esophageal motility disorders are diagnosed based on esophageal manometry findings. Achalasia has objective diagnostic criteria, and effective treatments are available. Hypercontractile motility disorders are generally self-limited and may be overdiagnosed, leading to unnecessary and irreversible interventions.
In patients with suspected MI and normal oxygen levels, giving immediate supplemental oxygen therapy does not improve mortality at one year. Although this study was underpowered because of fewer than expected deaths in the control group, the results were consistent across all subgroups, as well as with findings from other literature.
Once diagnoses requiring emergent attention are excluded, a virus is a likely causative agent to consider. Some patients must be reexamined with radiography after they receive treatment to ensure complete resolution of illness.
The most useful element for ruling in acute MI is chest pain with radiation to both arms, followed by radiation to the right arm. The most useful elements for ruling out acute MI are pleuritic chest pain, sharp pain, and pain reproduced by palpation.
Find out how to use exercise stress testing for risk stratification before surgery, which patients can be evaluated with testing alone, and which patients benefit from adjunctive imaging.
Cardiac troponin T and I are released into the bloodstream when cardiac muscle is damaged. Cardiac troponin tests have been available for decades and are the preferred biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, until recently, they lacked sensitivity in the first few hours following an acute myocardial injury.
For the evaluation of chest pain in intermediate-risk patients, CCTA is comparable with myocardial perfusion imaging in its ability to select patients for invasive management. Both modalities are also similar when it comes to downstream resource use and adverse cardiovascular events. CCTA is associated with less radiation exposure.
Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further testing to rul...