ITEMS IN AFP WITH KEYWORD:
Gas, bloating, and belching are primarily caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders; psychological distress can make symptoms worse. Exhaustive testing is not necessary for diagnosis. Most patients are classified as having gastric or small bowel bloating, bloating with constipation, or belching disorders. Patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome should be tested for celiac disease; patients with chronic constipation should have a rectal examination. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of highly restrictive exclusion diets except in patients with confirmed celiac disease.
Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Hemorrhoids, Tremor, C. difficile Infection, Migraine, Vitamin D Screening [AFP Clinical Answers]
Key clinical questions and their evidence-based answers directly from the journal’s content, written by and for family physicians.
Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children [Cochrane for Clinicians]
When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).
May 15, 2018 Issue
Infectious Diarrhea: IDSA Updates Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management [Practice Guidelines]
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has updated its 2001 guidelines for the management of children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is usually self-limited, but diagnostic testing and treatment are indicated in some cases.
Dec 1, 2017 Issue
Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea [Cochrane for Clinicians]
Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based solutions may result ...
Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It causes no symptoms in more than one-half of infected patients, but can also cause a wide spectrum of illnesses and death. The incidence and severity have increased in recent years. The most important modifiable r...
Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examinatio...
Fidaxomicin is effective for the treatment of C. difficile infection, but it is much more expensive than traditional therapy. Until it is known that the benefits outweigh the significant cost, metronidazole or oral vancomycin is the preferred treatment for most patients.
Acute gastroenteritis in children is a major cause of morbidity in the United States. Viral infections, primarily from rotavirus, cause 75 to 90 percent of cases. The remaining infections are largely bacterial, with as many as 10 percent of cases secondary to diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The hist...
The treatment of gastroenteritis in children focuses on preventing dehydration. A child with minimal or no dehydration should be encouraged to continue his or her usual diet plus drink adequate fluids. Many studies have shown that a child’s regular diet reduces the duration of diarrhea. Oral rehy...