May 15, 2018 Issue
Infectious Diarrhea: IDSA Updates Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management [Practice Guidelines]

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has updated its 2001 guidelines for the management of children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is usually self-limited, but diagnostic testing and treatment are indicated in some cases.

Dec 1, 2017 Issue
Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea [Cochrane for Clinicians]

Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based solutions may result ...

Mar 15, 2014 Issue
Common Questions About Clostridium difficile Infection [Article]

Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It causes no symptoms in more than one-half of infected patients, but can also cause a wide spectrum of illnesses and death. The incidence and severity have increased in recent years. The most important modifiable r...

Feb 1, 2014 Issue
Acute Diarrhea in Adults [Article]

Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examinatio...

Feb 1, 2013 Issue
Fidaxomicin (Dificid) for Clostridium difficile Infection [STEPS]

Fidaxomicin is effective for the treatment of C. difficile infection, but it is much more expensive than traditional therapy. Until it is known that the benefits outweigh the significant cost, metronidazole or oral vancomycin is the preferred treatment for most patients.

Jun 1, 2012 Issue
Gastroenteritis in Children: Part I. Diagnosis [Article]

Acute gastroenteritis in children is a major cause of morbidity in the United States. Viral infections, primarily from rotavirus, cause 75 to 90 percent of cases. The remaining infections are largely bacterial, with as many as 10 percent of cases secondary to diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The hist...

Jun 1, 2012 Issue
Gastroenteritis in Children: Part II. Prevention and Management [Article]

The treatment of gastroenteritis in children focuses on preventing dehydration. A child with minimal or no dehydration should be encouraged to continue his or her usual diet plus drink adequate fluids. Many studies have shown that a child’s regular diet reduces the duration of diarrhea. Oral rehy...

Nov 15, 2011 Issue
Evaluation of Chronic Diarrhea [Article]

Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, secretory, and functio...

Jul 1, 2011 Issue
Probiotics for Persistent Diarrhea in Children [Cochrane for Clinicians]

Limited data suggest that probiotic use decreases duration and frequency of loose stools, and reduces length of hospital stay in children with persistent diarrhea. One high-quality study showed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to be effective. Probiotics are generally well tolerated.

Oct 1, 2009 Issue
Diagnosis and Management of Dehydration in Children [Article]

The most useful individual signs for identifying dehydration in children are prolonged capillary refill time, abnormal skin turgor, and abnormal respiratory pattern. However, clinical dehydration scales based on a combination of physical examination findings are better predictors than individual sig...

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