ITEMS IN AFP WITH KEYWORD:
Common causes of chronic diarrhea include irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and microscopic colitis. The differential diagnosis for chronic diarrhea is broad; however, a thorough history and physical examination can narrow the diagnostic evaluation.
Although an algorithm to guide the workup is not offered, the American Gastroenterological Association suggests the following tests for patients with chronic diarrhea (i.e., watery diarrhea for at least four weeks): fecal calprotectin or fecal lactoferrin to screen for inflammatory bowel disease, an...
Mar 1, 2020 Issue
Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children [Medicine by the Numbers]
Antibiotics often disrupt the natural balance of nonpathogenic bacterial flora within the gastrointestinal tract. Learn more about the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridiodes difficile (formerly called Clostridium difficile) infection have recently been updated. Find out which antibiotics have the highest risk of causing C. difficile infection and which treatments are recommended based on whether the episode is from an initial vs. recurrent infection.
Gas, bloating, and belching are primarily caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders; psychological distress can make symptoms worse. Exhaustive testing is not necessary for diagnosis. Most patients are classified as having gastric or small bowel bloating, bloating with constipation, or belching disorders. Patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome should be tested for celiac disease; patients with chronic constipation should have a rectal examination. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of highly restrictive exclusion diets except in patients with confirmed celiac disease.
Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Hemorrhoids, Tremor, C. difficile Infection, Migraine, Vitamin D Screening [AFP Clinical Answers]
Key clinical questions and their evidence-based answers directly from the journal’s content, written by and for family physicians.
Mar 1, 2019 Issue
Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children [Cochrane for Clinicians]
When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).
May 15, 2018 Issue
Infectious Diarrhea: IDSA Updates Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management [Practice Guidelines]
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has updated its 2001 guidelines for the management of children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is usually self-limited, but diagnostic testing and treatment are indicated in some cases.
Dec 1, 2017 Issue
Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea [Cochrane for Clinicians]
Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based solutions may result ...
Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It causes no symptoms in more than one-half of infected patients, but can also cause a wide spectrum of illnesses and death. The incidence and severity have increased in recent years. The most important modifiable r...