Fluid and Electrolytes

Aug 15, 2019 Issue
Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children: AAP Provides Recommendations [Practice Guidelines]

The American Academy of Pediatrics has created an evidence-based guideline recommending the use of isotonic fluids for patients 28 days to 18 years of age to reduce the risk of developing hyponatremia.

Sep 15, 2015 Issue
Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia [Article]

Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Find out current strategies to diagnose and manage these common electrolyte disorders.

Mar 1, 2015 Issue
Diagnosis and Management of Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia [Article]

Find out how to classify sodium disorders based on volume status, which treatment options are recommended, and the latest evidence on the use of vaptans.

Oct 15, 2008 Issue
Conivaptan (Vaprisol) for the Treatment of Hyponatremia [STEPS]

In most cases, patients with hyponatremia can be adequately managed with fluid restriction alone. However, acutely symptomatic patients may require treatment, such as hypertonic saline. In these situations, conivaptan is an expensive alternative.

Feb 1, 2006 Issue
ACSM Recommendations for Endurance Athletes [Practice Guidelines]

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has released evidence-based recommendations for athletes to prevent hyponatremia and dehydration during sporting events.

Jan 15, 2006 Issue
Hyperkalemia [Article]

Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors. Acute episodes of hyperkalemia commonly are triggered by ...

May 15, 2004 Issue
Management of Hyponatremia [Article]

Hyponatremia is an important electrolyte abnormality with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Common causes include medications and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Hyponatremia can be classified according to the volume status of the patient as...

May 1, 2003 Issue
A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia [Article]

Hypercalcemia is a disorder commonly encountered by primary care physicians. The diagnosis often is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Clinical manifestations affect the neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, renal, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. The most common causes of hypercalcemia are...

Jun 15, 2000 Issue
Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in the Elderly [Article]

Management of abnormalities in water homeostasis is frequently challenging. Because age-related changes and chronic diseases are often associated with impairment of water metabolism in elderly patients, it is absolutely essential for clinicians to be aware of the pathophysiology of hyponatremia and ...

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