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Gout

Nov 1, 2020 Issue
Gout: Rapid Evidence Review [Article]

Risk factors of gout include male sex; obesity; hypertension; alcohol intake; and a diet rich in meat, seafood, and fructose-rich food and beverages. Gout is characterized by swelling, pain, or tenderness in a peripheral joint or bursa. Diagnosis is made using several validated clinical prediction rules. Arthrocentesis should be performed when suspicion for an underlying septic joint is present; synovial fluid or tophus analysis should be performed if the diagnosis is uncertain. Colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids all relieve pain in acute episodes. Indications for chronic urate-lowering therapy include chronic kidney disease, two or more flares per year, urolithiasis, the presence of tophus, chronic gouty arthritis, and joint damage.


Jan 15, 2020 Issue
Short-Term Systemic Corticosteroids: Appropriate Use in Primary Care [Article]

Short-term systemic corticosteroids are frequently prescribed for adults by primary care physicians; however, short courses of the steroids are associated with adverse effects, including hyperglycemia, elevated blood pressure, mood disturbance, sepsis, and fracture. There is evidence against corticosteroid use in patients with acute bronchitis, acute sinusitis, carpal tunnel, and allergic rhinitis and for its use in patients with Bell palsy and acute gout. There is insufficient evidence supporting its use for patients with pharyngitis, lumbar radiculopathy, and herpes zoster.


Nov 1, 2019 Issue
Allopurinol Hypersensitivity Assay HLA-B*58:01 Genotyping [Diagnostic Tests: What Physicians Need to Know]

The allopurinol hypersensitivity assay, or HLA-B*58:01 test, is a blood test to detect the presence of a human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B) genetic variant that increases the risk of life-threatening, severe cutaneous adverse reactions in patients taking allopurinol.


Sep 15, 2018 Issue
Febuxostat Increases All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Compared with Allopurinol [POEMs]

For patients with gout who require treatment to lower their uric acid level, allopurinol is a safer option than febuxostat.


Mar 15, 2018 Issue
Lesinurad (Zurampic) for Gout [STEPS]

Lesinurad taken in addition to a xanthine oxidase inhibitor reduces serum uric acid levels. However, it does not reduce the likelihood of experiencing a gout flare-up or completely resolving tophi.


Dec 1, 2017 Issue
Acute Gout: ACP Provides Guideline on Diagnosis [Practice Guidelines]

The diagnostic standard for acute gout is joint aspiration with synovial fluid analysis for monosodium urate crystals; however, many patients are seen in a primary care or emergency medicine situation where synovial fluid analysis is rarely performed. The American College of Physicians (ACP) has dev...


Nov 15, 2017 Issue
Gout: Diagnosis and Management [Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews]

What is the accuracy of clinical decision tools and imaging for the diagnosis of gout in the primary care setting, and how effective are medications used to treat and prevent gout?


Sep 15, 2016 Issue
Clinical Diagnosis of Gout Without Joint Aspirate [Point-of-Care Guides]

Gout is ideally diagnosed through identification of characteristic negatively birefringent crystals under polarized light microscopy in fluid aspirated from end-organ deposits, typically from a joint. However, fewer than 10% of patients with gout see a rheumatologist, and most cases of gout are diag...


Oct 1, 2015 Issue
Risk of Gout with the Use of Thiazide Diuretics [FPIN's Clinical Inquiries]

Thiazide diuretics may be used in most patients with hypertension who have only minimally increased risk of gout.


Jun 1, 2015 Issue
Colchicine for Acute Gout [Cochrane for Clinicians]

Low-quality evidence shows that low-dose colchicine (up to 1.8 mg over one hour) is an effective therapy for acute gout.


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