Kidney Disorders

Apr 1, 2012 Issue
End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning [Article]

The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed safely, but the pat...

Dec 1, 2011 Issue
Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update [Article]

Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and...

Nov 15, 2011 Issue
Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation [Article]

Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease base...

Sep 1, 2011 Issue
Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in Women [Article]

Acute pyelonephritis is a common bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidney most often seen in young adult women. History and physical examination are the most useful tools for diagnosis. Most patients have fever, although it may be absent early in the illness. Flank pain is nearly universal...

Dec 15, 2010 Issue
End-stage Renal Disease [Clinical Evidence Handbook]

What are the effects of different doses for peritoneal dialysis? What are the effects of different doses and membrane fluxes for hemodialysis? What are the effects of interventions aimed at preventing secondary complications?

Sep 15, 2010 Issue
Proteinuria in Children [Article]

Proteinuria is common in children and may represent a benign condition or a serious underlying renal disease or systemic disorder. Proteinuria may occur secondary to glomerular or tubular dysfunction. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended, it may be impractical in ch...

Nov 15, 2009 Issue
Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management [Article]

There are no established guidelines on the diagnostic workup or management of nephrotic syndrome. Treatment includes fluid and sodium restriction, oral or intravenous diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Oct 1, 2009 Issue
Gadolinium-Associated Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis [Article]

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a progressive, potentially fatal multiorgan system fibrosing disease related to exposure of patients with renal failure to the gadolinium-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. Because of this relationship between nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and ...

Sep 15, 2008 Issue
Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity [Article]

Drugs are a common source of acute kidney injury. Compared with 30 years ago, the average patient today is older, has more comorbidities, and is exposed to more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the potential to harm kidney function. Drugs shown to cause nephrotoxicity exert their toxic eff...

Aug 15, 2007 Issue
CDC Reports on Racial Differences in Patients with ESRD [Practice Guidelines]

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a report on the racial differences in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

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