Kidney Disorders

Oct 15, 2012 Issue
Update on the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease [Article]

Chronic kidney disease is common and associated with significant morbidity. Given the high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is important to identify and treat related risk factors. However, there is growing uncertainty about the benefits of ...

Oct 1, 2012 Issue
Acute Kidney Injury: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management [Article]

Acute kidney injury is characterized by abrupt deterioration in kidney function, manifested by an increase in serum creatinine level with or without reduced urine output. The spectrum of injury ranges from mild to advanced, sometimes requiring renal replacement therapy. The diagnostic evaluation c...

May 1, 2012 Issue
Diabetic Nephropathy--The Family Physician's Role [Article]

Nearly one-half of persons with chronic kidney disease have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes accounted for 44 percent of new cases of kidney failure in 2008. Diabetic nephropathy, also called diabetic kidney disease, is associated with significant macrovascular risk, and is the leading cause of kidney fa...

Apr 1, 2012 Issue
End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning [Article]

The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed safely, but the pat...

Dec 1, 2011 Issue
Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update [Article]

Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and...

Nov 15, 2011 Issue
Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation [Article]

Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease base...

Sep 1, 2011 Issue
Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in Women [Article]

Acute pyelonephritis is a common bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidney most often seen in young adult women. History and physical examination are the most useful tools for diagnosis. Most patients have fever, although it may be absent early in the illness. Flank pain is nearly universal...

Dec 15, 2010 Issue
End-stage Renal Disease [Clinical Evidence Handbook]

What are the effects of different doses for peritoneal dialysis? What are the effects of different doses and membrane fluxes for hemodialysis? What are the effects of interventions aimed at preventing secondary complications?

Sep 15, 2010 Issue
Proteinuria in Children [Article]

Proteinuria is common in children and may represent a benign condition or a serious underlying renal disease or systemic disorder. Proteinuria may occur secondary to glomerular or tubular dysfunction. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended, it may be impractical in ch...

Nov 15, 2009 Issue
Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management [Article]

There are no established guidelines on the diagnostic workup or management of nephrotic syndrome. Treatment includes fluid and sodium restriction, oral or intravenous diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

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