Kidney Disorders

May 15, 2007 Issue
Drug Dosing Adjustments in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease [Article]

Chronic kidney disease affects renal drug elimination and other pharmacokinetic processes involved in drug disposition (e.g., absorption, drug distribution, nonrenal clearance [metabolism]). Drug dosing errors are common in patients with renal impairment and can cause adverse effects and poor outcom...

May 1, 2007 Issue
Nonpharmacologic vs. Anticholinergic Therapies for Overactive Bladder [Cochrane for Clinicians]

Anticholinergic medications are more effective than bladder training in reducing the number of voids per day. Combining an anti-cholinergic medication with bladder training is more effective than either therapy alone.

Apr 15, 2007 Issue
Indications for Renal Arteriography at the Time of Coronary Arteriography [Practice Guidelines]

A science advisory published by American Heart Association (AHA) describes the indications for renal arteriography. When possible, patients with a clinical indication for investigation of renal artery stenosis should undergo noninvasive diagnostic tests before coronary arteriography.

Sep 15, 2006 Issue
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: An Emerging Health Risk [Article]

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused primarily by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The most common cause of acute renal failure in children, hemolytic uremic syndrome also can occur in adults. Characteristic features of the syndrome are microangiopathic anemia, thrombotic thrombocytope...

Jul 1, 2006 Issue
Medical Management of Common Urinary Calculi [Article]

Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic intervention. Serum studi...

Nov 1, 2005 Issue
Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease [Article]

Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented by controlli...

Nov 1, 2005 Issue
Management of Acute Renal Failure [Article]

Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause of acute ren...

Jul 1, 2005 Issue
Diabetic Nephropathy: Common Questions [Article]

Diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease, affects 20 to 30 percent of patients with diabetes. It is a common cause of kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy presents in its earliest stage with low levels of albumin (microalbuminuria) in the urine. The most practical method of screening for mic...

Mar 1, 2005 Issue
Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pyelonephritis in Adults [Article]

There are approximately 250,000 cases of acute pyelonephritis each year, resulting in more than 100,000 hospitalizations. The most common etiologic cause is infection with Escherichia coli. The combination of the leukocyte esterase test and the nitrite test (with either test proving positive) has a ...

Nov 15, 2004 Issue
Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention and Treatment of Common Complications [Article]

Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the important role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis, chronic kidney disease can affect almost every body system. Early recognition and intervention are essential to slowing di...

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