Liver Disorders

Nov 1, 2011 Issue
Causes and Evaluation of Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels [Article]

Mild elevations in levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase are commonly discovered in asymptomatic patients in primary care. Evidence to guide the diagnostic workup is limited. If the history and physical examination do not suggest a cause, a stepwise evaluation s...

Nov 15, 2006 Issue
Predicting Prognosis in Patients with End-stage Liver Disease [Point-of-Care Guides]

Two scoring systems are widely used to predict prognosis in patients with end-stage liver disease: the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score.

Sep 1, 2006 Issue
Cirrhosis and Chronic Liver Failure: Part II. Complications and Treatment [Article]

Major complications of cirrhosis include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, variceal bleeding, and hepatorenal syndrome. Diagnostic studies on ascitic fluid should include a differential leukocyte count, total protein level, a serum-ascites album...

Sep 1, 2006 Issue
Cirrhosis and Chronic Liver Failure: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation [Article]

Cirrhosis and chronic liver failure are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with the majority of preventable cases attributed to excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis often is an indolent disease; most patients rema...

Jun 1, 2006 Issue
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease [Article]

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common condition associated with metabolic syndrome. It is the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes in U.S. adults, and is diagnosed after ruling out other causes of steatosis (fatty infiltration of liver), particularly infectious hepatitis and alcohol ab...

Mar 15, 2005 Issue
Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels in the Asymptomatic Patient [Article]

Mild elevations in liver chemistry tests such as alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase can reveal serious underlying conditions or have transient and benign etiologies. Potential causes of liver transaminase elevations include viral hepatitis, alcohol use, medication use, steatosis or stea...

Jan 15, 2004 Issue
Jaundice in the Adult Patient [Article]

Jaundice in an adult patient can be caused by a wide variety of benign or life-threatening disorders. Organizing the differential diagnosis by prehepatic, intrahepatic, and posthepatic causes may help make the work-up more manageable. Prehepatic causes of jaundice include hemolysis and hematoma reso...

Nov 1, 2003 Issue
Probability of Cirrhosis in Patients with Hepatitis C [Point-of-Care Guides]

Hepatitis C is a growing health concern. An estimated 3.9 million persons in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus; 2.7 million of these persons have chronic infection. Cirrhosis develops in approximately 7 percent of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

Mar 1, 2002 Issue
Recognition and Management of Hereditary Hemochromatosis [Article]

Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common inherited single-gene disorder in people of northern European descent. It is characterized by increased intestinal absorption of iron, with deposition of the iron in multiple organs. Previously, the classic description was combined diabetes mellitus, cut...

Nov 15, 2001 Issue
Preventive Strategies in Chronic Liver Disease: Part II. Cirrhosis [Article]

Cirrhosis is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The modified Child-Pugh score, which ranks the severity of cirrhosis based on signs and liver function test results, has been shown to predict survival. Strate...

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