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Neonatology/Newborn Issues

May 15, 2003 Issue
Congenital Toxoplasmosis [Article]

Approximately 85 percent of women of childbearing age in the United States are susceptible to acute infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Transmission of T. gondii to the fetus can result in serious health problems, including mental retardation, seizures, blindness, and death. Som...


Apr 15, 2003 Issue
Is Oral Sucrose an Effective Analgesic in Neonates? [Cochrane for Clinicians]

The use of oral sucrose, with or without pacifiers, has been shown to relieve pain in neonates, as assessed by physiologic and behavioral pain indicators and pain scores.


Mar 1, 2003 Issue
CDC Updates Guidelines for Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease [Practice Guidelines]

The National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) recently issued revised guidelines for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. GBS disease remains one of the leading causes of newborn morbidity and mortality, resulting in an estimated 1,600 early-onset cases and 80 deaths each year.


Nov 1, 2002 Issue
Common Issues in the Care of Sick Neonates [Article]

Newborn infants may be transferred to a special care nursery because of conditions such as prematurity (gestation less than 37 weeks), prolonged resuscitation, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and jaundice, and for evaluation of neonatal sepsis. Newborn infants' core temperature should be kept above ...


May 15, 2002 Issue
Double-Ligature: A Treatment for Pedunculated Umbilical Granulomas in Children [Article]

Umbilical granulomas are common inflammatory reactions to the resolving umbilical stump. The double-ligature technique is simple to perform and provides good cosmetic and functional results with only minor complications. The granuloma becomes necrotic and drops off within seven to 14 days. The doubl...


Apr 1, 2002 Issue
Infant Botulism [Article]

Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores germinate into bacteria that colonize the bowel and s...


Mar 15, 2002 Issue
Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections [Article]

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Many of the infections result from asymptomatic cervical shedding of virus after a primary episode of genital HSV in the third trimester. Antibodies to HSV-2 have been detected in approximately 20 percent of preg...


Feb 15, 2002 Issue
Hyperbilirubinemia in the Term Newborn [Article]

Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common problems encountered in term newborns. Historically, management guidelines were derived from studies on bilirubin toxicity in infants with hemolytic disease. More recent recommendations support the use of less intensive therapy in healthy term newborns wi...


Jan 15, 2002 Issue
The Newborn Examination: Part II. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the Abdomen. Pelvis, Extremities, Genitalia, and Spine [Article]

Careful examination of the neonate at delivery can detect anomalies, birth injuries, and disorders that may compromise successful adaptation to extrauterine life. A newborn with one anatomic malformation should be evaluated for associated anomalies. If a newborn is found to have an abdominal wall de...


Jan 1, 2002 Issue
The Newborn Examination: Part I. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the Skin, Head, Neck, Chest, and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems [Article]

The routine newborn assessment should include an examination for size, macrocephaly or microcephaly, changes in skin color, signs of birth trauma, malformations, evidence of respiratory distress, level of arousal, posture, tone, presence of spontaneous movements, and symmetry of movements. A newborn...


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