Neonatology/Newborn Issues

Apr 1, 2001 Issue
NIH Consensus Statement on Phenylketonuria [Practice Guidelines]

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has released a statement on the screening and management of phenylketonuria (PKU). PKU, a form of hyperphenylalaninemia, is a rare metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.

May 1, 2000 Issue
Bilious Vomiting in the Newborn: Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Obstruction [Article]

Bilious vomiting in newborns is an urgent condition that requires the immediate involvement of a team of pediatric surgeons and neonatologists for perioperative management. However, initial detection, evaluation and treatment are often performed by nurses, family physicians and general pediatricians...

Jan 1, 2000 Issue
Anticipatory Guidance in Infant Oral Health: Rationale and Recommendations [Article]

If appropriate measures are applied early enough, it may be possible to totally prevent oral disease. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that infants be scheduled for an initial oral evaluation within six months of the eruption of the first primary tooth but by no later than 12 m...

Nov 1, 1999 Issue
Failure to Pass Meconium: Diagnosing Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction [Article]

Timely passage of the first stool is a hallmark of the well-being of the newborn infant. Failure of a full-term newborn to pass meconium in the first 24 hours may signal intestinal obstruction. Lower intestinal obstruction may be associated with disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease, anorectal ma...

Oct 1, 1999 Issue
Issues in Newborn Screening for Phenylketonuria [Article]

The blood sample for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening should be obtained at least 12 hours after the infant's birth. Newborn screening for PKU has largely eliminated mental retardation caused by this disease. If the first phenylalanine test demonstrates positive results, a repeat test should be perfo...

Jul 01, 1999 Issue
Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip [Article]

Screening programs relying primarily on physical examination techniques for the early detection and treatment of congenital hip abnormalities have not been as consistently successful as expected. Since the 1980s, increased attention has been given to ultrasound imaging of the hip in young infants (l...

May 15, 1999 Issue
Aseptic Meningitis in the Newborn and Young Infant [Article]

When a toxic newborn or young infant presents with fever and lethargy or irritability, it is important to consider the diagnosis of meningitis even if the classic localizing signs and symptoms are absent. Cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained (unless lumbar puncture is clinically contraindicated) t...

Apr 1, 1999 Issue
Caring for Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Their Families [Article]

Congenital heart defects are classified into two broad categories: acyanotic and cyanotic lesions. The most common acyanotic lesions are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal, pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta...

Mar 1, 1999 Issue
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Not Really a Zebra [Article]

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was once considered a rare inherited disorder with severe manifestations. Mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia, however, is common, affecting one in 100 to 1,000 persons in the United States and frequently eluding diagnosis. Both classic and nonclassic forms of the dise...

Feb 15, 1999 Issue
Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula [Article]

Esophageal atresia, with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, is a fairly common congenital disorder that family physicians should consider in the differential diagnosis of a neonate who develops feeding difficulties and respiratory distress in the first few days of life. Esophageal atresia is ofte...

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