Newborn Care

Nov 1, 1999 Issue
Failure to Pass Meconium: Diagnosing Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction [Article]

Timely passage of the first stool is a hallmark of the well-being of the newborn infant. Failure of a full-term newborn to pass meconium in the first 24 hours may signal intestinal obstruction. Lower intestinal obstruction may be associated with disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease, anorectal ma...

Oct 1, 1999 Issue
Issues in Newborn Screening for Phenylketonuria [Article]

The blood sample for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening should be obtained at least 12 hours after the infant's birth. Newborn screening for PKU has largely eliminated mental retardation caused by this disease. If the first phenylalanine test demonstrates positive results, a repeat test should be perfo...

Jul 01, 1999 Issue
Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip [Article]

Screening programs relying primarily on physical examination techniques for the early detection and treatment of congenital hip abnormalities have not been as consistently successful as expected. Since the 1980s, increased attention has been given to ultrasound imaging of the hip in young infants (l...

May 15, 1999 Issue
Aseptic Meningitis in the Newborn and Young Infant [Article]

When a toxic newborn or young infant presents with fever and lethargy or irritability, it is important to consider the diagnosis of meningitis even if the classic localizing signs and symptoms are absent. Cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained (unless lumbar puncture is clinically contraindicated) t...

Apr 1, 1999 Issue
Caring for Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Their Families [Article]

Congenital heart defects are classified into two broad categories: acyanotic and cyanotic lesions. The most common acyanotic lesions are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal, pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta...

Mar 1, 1999 Issue
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Not Really a Zebra [Article]

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was once considered a rare inherited disorder with severe manifestations. Mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia, however, is common, affecting one in 100 to 1,000 persons in the United States and frequently eluding diagnosis. Both classic and nonclassic forms of the dise...

Feb 15, 1999 Issue
Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula [Article]

Esophageal atresia, with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, is a fairly common congenital disorder that family physicians should consider in the differential diagnosis of a neonate who develops feeding difficulties and respiratory distress in the first few days of life. Esophageal atresia is ofte...

Sep 15, 1998 Issue
The Gomco Circumcision: Common Problems and Solutions [Article]

Circumcision performed using the Gomco clamp is usually quick and effective, and results in very little bleeding. However, every clinician performing circumcision occasionally has concerns or questions regarding the procedure. Some of the more common concerns regarding the use of the Gomco clamp are...

May 15, 1998 Issue
Office Care of the Premature Infant: Part II. Common Medical and Surgical Problems [Article]

Medical problems associated with prematurity are frequently complex, and a multidisciplinary approach is often required. Some common problems include the following: (1) anemia, which can be reduced by iron supplementation, (2) cerebral palsy or mental retardation as a result of intraventricular hemo...

May 1, 1998 Issue
Care of the Premature Infant: Part I. Monitoring Growth and Development [Article]

When monitoring growth and development in the premature infant, physicians should make adjustments for the estimated due date. With minor exceptions, administration of immunizations is based on the chronologic age. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be delayed until the infant weighs 2,000...

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