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Patients and physicians often have difficulty staying abreast of diet trends, many of which focus primarily on weight loss rather than nutrition and health. Find out which dietary approaches have proven benefits for cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
What is the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes?
A combination of three probiotic species slightly improves symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Lactobacillus casei alone does not affect depressive symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but it does improve anxiety.
Measuring vitamin D levels and prescribing oral vitamin D supplementation is common in clinical practice, although the health benefits have not been established. Clinical trials have not found vitamin D to be beneficial for chronic nonskeletal conditions, and screening and supplementation are not recommended in asymptomatic individuals.
Evidence for vitamin D screening and supplementation in adults shows that these commonplace practices have virtually no established health benefits.
The evidence is conflicting on whether gluten-free diets improve symptoms of IBS. Gluten-free diets may improve symptoms such as abdominal pain, stool consistency, and tiredness, and they can be recommended to patients with IBS.
Learn which diet and physical activity strategies have the best supporting evidence to prevent the leading causes of death in the United States.
Antenatal dietary education appears to decrease the rate of preterm birth and increase infant birth weight among undernourished women. Providing balanced energy and protein supplements to pregnant women decreases the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and having an infant that is small for gestational age (number needed to treat [NNT] = 28).
The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) has released the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which update the previous 2010 guideline, to provide guidance regarding healthy eating.