May 15, 2015 Issue
Beta-Lactam Not as Effective as Beta-Lactam Plus Macrolide for Treating CAP in the Hospital [POEMs]

In this noninferiority trial, monotherapy with a beta-lactam was not as effective as combination therapy with a beta-lactam and a macrolide for achieving clinical stability in seven days for hospitalized patients with moderately severe CAP.

Jan 15, 2015 Issue
Evidence Does Not Show Benefit of Treating Mycoplasma Pneumonia in Children [POEMs]

After all these years of knowing about Mycoplasma pneumoniae as a cause of lower respiratory tract infections and the effectiveness of various antibiotics against it in a Petri dish, we still do not know whether treating mycoplasma pneumonia in children is effective. This study does not tell us to s...

Nov 1, 2014 Issue
Net Benefit with Azithromycin Use in Older Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia [POEMs]

For older patients hospitalized with pneumonia, the use of combination antibiotic therapy including azithromycin is associated with decreased mortality but an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). You would need to treat 21 patients with azithromycin to prevent one death within 90 days; you ...

Oct 1, 2012 Issue
Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children [Article]

Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially serious infection in children and often results in hospitalization. The diagnosis can be based on the history and physical examination results in children with fever plus respiratory signs and symptoms. Chest radiography and rapid viral testing may be he...

Jul 15, 2012 Issue
PIDS and IDSA Issue Management Guidelines for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Young Children [Practice Guidelines]

Previously published guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality rates. The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have created new guidelines to address the management of CAP in infants and children.

Jun 1, 2011 Issue
Diagnosis and Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults [Article]

Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or s...

Dec 1, 2010 Issue
Chest Physiotherapy for Pneumonia in Adults [Cochrane for Clinicians]

There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy for adults with pneumonia. In two small studies by the same investigator, only osteopathic manipulation was shown to improve some outcomes (i.e., length of stay and duration of antibiotic therapy).

Oct 15, 2010 Issue
AAP Recommendations on Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection [Practice Guidelines]

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) releases recommendations on Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination. In February 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13; Prevnar 13) for use in children two through 71 months of age. PCV13 will replace PCV7.

Jul 15, 2010 Issue
Clinical Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children [Point-of-Care Guides]

Pneumonia remains a common source of morbidity and mortality in children. A key question in the diagnostic evaluation of children with acute respiratory illness is whether chest radiography should be performed to rule in or rule out the diagnosis of pneumonia. Radiologically, pneumonia is defined as...

Jun 1, 2009 Issue
Treatment of Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia [Article]

Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in nursing home residents, with 30-day mortality rates ranging from 10 to 30 percent. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of nursing home-acquired pneumonia, although Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative organisms may be mor...

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