ITEMS IN AFP WITH KEYWORD:
Upper Respiratory Infections
Croup is primarily a clinical diagnosis, with typical findings of abrupt onset of a barking cough, inspiratory stridor, and hoarseness in children six months to three years of age. Differentiating croup from other acute illnesses can be challenging. Find out which clinical signs and symptoms are most accurate for diagnosing croup, and which treatments have the strongest evidence.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are no more effective than narrow-spectrum antibiotics for treating acute respiratory tract infections in infants and children, and adverse events are significantly more common in children treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).
The American College of Physicians (ACP) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline on appropriate antibiotic use in the treatment of healthy adults with acute respiratory tract infection outlines one of the medical community's top priorities.
Dec 1, 2016 Issue
Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing for Uncomplicated Acute RTIs [Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews]
What are the effectiveness and adverse consequences of strategies for reducing antibiotic use in adults and children with uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)?
Learn how to differentiate acute bronchitis from other more serious conditions, such as pneumonia, and how to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatment.
Jul 1, 2016 Issue
Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Respiratory Infections [FPIN's Clinical Inquiries]
A procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy algorithm should be used to decrease antibiotic use in adults with acute respiratory infections. The use of a procalcitonin-guided therapy algorithm reduces antibiotic use by 3.47 days without increasing morbidity or mortality in adults with acute respiratory infections.
In almost 400 Spanish primary care patients with mild to moderate symptoms of respiratory infection of less than one week's duration, both a “take-and-hold” prescription and a “come back and pick up, if necessary” prescription produced a similar clinical response—and similar patient satisfaction sco...
Patients with acute LRTI and green sputum or cardiopulmonary comorbidities experience a slightly greater benefit with amoxicillin treatment. That outcome must be balanced against the harms of antibiotics on the individual and population level.
Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that it increases the risk of hospitalization.