• Rationale and Comments

    Diagnostic testing of infertility requires evaluation of factors involving ovulation, fallopian tube patency and spermatogenesis based upon clinical history. Although immunological factors may influence early embryo implantation, routine immunological testing of couples with infertility is expensive and does not predict pregnancy outcome.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • American Society for Reproductive Medicine


    • Expert consensus


    • Gynecologic


    • Cervera R, Balasch J. Bidirectional effects on autoimmunity and reproduction. Hum Reprod. 2008;14:359-66.
    • Carp HJA, Selmi C, Shoenfel Y. The autoimmune bases of infertility and pregnancy loss. J Autoimmun. 2012;38:J266-74.