• Rationale and Comments

    Continuous electronic FHR monitoring during labor, a routine procedure in many hospitals, is associated with an increase in cesarean and instrumental births without improving Apgar score, neonatal intensive care unit admission or intrapartum fetal death rates. Intermittent auscultation allows women more freedom of movement during labor, enhancing their ability to cope with labor pain and utilize gravity to promote labor progress. Upright positions and walking have been associated with shorter duration of first stage labor, fewer cesareans and reduced epidural use.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • American Academy of Nursing


    • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews


    • Obstetrical


    • Alfirevic Z, Devane D, Gyte GM. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;5:CD006066.
    • Creedon D, Akkerman D, Atwood L, Bates L, Harper C, Levin A, McCall C, Peterson D, Rose C, Setterlund L, Walkes B, Wingeier R. Management of labor. Bloomington (MN): Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI); 2013 Mar. 66 p.
    • Lawrence A, Lewis L, Hofmeyr GJ, Styles C. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 9;10:CD003934.