• Rationale and Comments

    Passive physical therapeutic modalities are defined as those interventions applied to a patient with no active participation on the part of the patient. These include heat, cold, electrical stimulation, and ultrasound. These passive therapies can play an important role in facilitating patient participation in an active treatment program. However, the use of passive therapies untethered to the goal of increasing physical activity can be harmful, as it can lead to patient inactivity, prolonged recovery, and increased costs. For any patient with a low-back pain disorder to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, an essential element is to restore, maintain, or increase the level of physical activity. The evidence demonstrates that both general physical activity (e.g., walking, jogging, biking) and specific exercise regimens are effective in treating and preventing low-back pain and may lead to better outcomes when combined with spinal manipulation.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • American Chiropractic Association


    • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality


    • Neurologic
    • Orthopedic


    • Ebadi S, Henschke N, Nakhostin Ansari N, Fallah E, van Tulder MW. Therapeutic ultrasound for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 14;(3):CD009169.
    • McGregor AH, Probyn K, Cro S, Doré CJ, Burton AK, Balagué F, Pincus T, Fairbank J. Rehabilitation following surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec;(12):CD009644.
    • Khadilkar A, Odebiyi DO, Brosseau L, Wells GA. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD003008.
    • Steffens D, Maher CG, Pereira LS, Stevens ML, Oliveira VC, Chapple M, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Hancock MJ. Prevention of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):199-208.
    • Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, et al. Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 169. [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2016 Feb. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 169.) [cited 2017 May 4]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK350276/.