• Rationale and Comments

    BPSD include aggression, agitation, wandering, disruptive vocalizations, anxiety, apathy, hallucinations, and depression. The majority of people living with dementia will experience these symptoms. They result in poor quality of life, more rapid cognitive and functional decline, high risk for abuse, caregiver burden, and tremendous cost to the US healthcare system. In fact, dementia care is among the most costly of diseases including diabetes, cancer, and heart disease; and BPSD account for a staggering 30% of total dementia costs. Despite the high human and dollar costs associated with these symptoms, their treatment continues to challenge practitioners and remains a top research priority in long-term care settings. Because BPSD are often triggered by a change in physical condition, an unmet need or an environment that exceeds the person’s stress threshold, it is important that these triggers be addressed as the first line of treatment rather than resorting to physical or chemical restraint, which carry a risk for adverse effects.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • American Academy of Nursing


    • Expert consensus


    • Geriatric Medicine
    • Neurologic
    • Psychiatric and Psychologic


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