• Rationale and Comments

    The use of opioids is not recommended without a thorough evaluation, consideration of alternative medications and treatments, review of all current medications, and discussions of risks of opioid therapy and potential interactions with current medications for other conditions. Other treatment modalities are effective and avoid the risks associated with the use of opioids. Opioid prescriptions should be for a limited period with the lowest effective dose that provides meaningful pain relief and improved function with manageable side effects.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons


    • Randomized controlled trials


    • Neurologic
    • Orthopedic
    • Rheumatologic


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