• Rationale and Comments

    Anemia is a global health problem with an incidence of up to 25% in neonates, infants, and children. An independent association between preoperative anemia and postoperative morbidity and mortality has been reported. Expert consensus guidelines recommend screening three to six weeks before major elective surgery. Targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies, which may include iron supplementation, to improve the hematologic status of patients with anemia prior to surgery could reduce blood transfusions, improve safety, and decrease costs.

    Sponsoring Organizations

    • Society for the Advancement of Patient Blood Management: Pediatric and Neonatal Medicine


    • Expert consensus


    • Hematologic
    • Pediatric
    • Surgical


    • World Health Organization (WHO) 63rd World Health Assembly. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Available at whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596657_eng.pdf.
    • Goobie SM, Faraoni D, Zurakowski D, et al. Association of preoperative anemia with postoperative mortality in neonates. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(9):855-862.
    • Faraoni D, DiNardo JA, Goobie SM. Relationship between preoperative anemia and in-hospital mortality in children undergoing noncardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2016;123(6):1582-1587.
    • National Blood Authority Australia. Patient blood management guidelines: Module 6 Neonatal And Paediatrics. 2016. https://www.blood.gov.au/pbm-module-6
    • Kozek-Langenecker SA, Ahmed AB, Afshari A, et al. Management of severe perioperative bleeding: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology: First update 2016. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2017;34(6):332-395.
    • Goobie SM, Gallagher T, Gross I, et al. Society for the advancement of blood management administrative and clinical standards for patient blood management programs. 4th edition (pediatric version). Paediatr Anaesth. 2019;29(3):231-236.