brand logo

Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(4):969-971

Women have a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality than men, and female sex hormones have been considered to be a protective factor. Support for this advantage includes the low rate of coronary heart disease in pre-menopausal women, the increased occurrence of heart disease in women who have premature menopause or bilateral oophorectomy, and studies showing less heart disease in post-menopausal women who use hormone therapy. Other studies have disputed these results. Studies confirming that postmenopausal hormone therapy reduces cardiovascular deaths were based on limited observational data that may have been confounded by population biases. Based on an influential meta-analysis published in 1992, the American College of Physicians and other medical organizations recommended that all postmenopausal women be offered hormone therapy to prevent heart disease. Barrett-Connor looked at the clinical trials of estrogen used to decrease the risk of heart disease.

The Coronary Drug Project, an early prospective trial comparing estrogen use with placebo in the secondary prevention of coronary events in men, was concluded early because of an increase in thromboembolic events and myocardial infarctions in patients receiving hormone therapy. No further studies were initiated until the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study started in 1993. This secondary prevention trial studied unopposed estrogen and estrogen plus progestin in women who already had heart disease. There was no difference demonstrated in the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction or death from heart disease in the treated women. During the first year, there was a significant increase in cardiac events in the hormone therapy group. Multiple other small secondary prevention trials using various hormone regimens also have shown no benefit with therapy and possibly some harm.

Primary prevention trials, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), compared prevention strategies including hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. No benefit was demonstrated, and small excess risks of breast cancer, stroke, and pulmonary emboli were noted in the treatment group.

The author uses an epidemiologic review to conclude that recent clinical trials demonstrate that postmenopausal hormone therapy is unlikely to prevent heart disease and should not be included in heart protection plans for women. The early harm noted in these studies may be the result of a thrombotic state or inflammation.

In an accompanying editorial, Prestwood points out that lower dosages of estrogen (0.25 mg per day) and progesterone appear to be effective in preventing bone loss and reducing hot flushes in postmenopausal women, possibly without the adverse effects that may accompany WHI.

Continue Reading


More in AFP

Copyright © 2004 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP.  See https://www.aafp.org/about/this-site/permissions.html for copyright questions and/or permission requests.