brand logo

Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(5):1245-1247

Markers of systemic inflammation can predict future cardiovascular events in healthy persons and patients with coronary artery disease. Measurement of certain inflammatory markers can help identify high-risk patients, monitor disease activity, and provide a therapeutic guide for reducing the inflammatory component of the disease. Fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) are the inflammatory markers most extensively studied for their relation to cardiovascular risk. Rosenson and Koenig reviewed the effectiveness of fibrinogen and high-sensitivity CRP measurement in evaluating and managing cardiovascular disease risk.

Coronary artery inflammation is involved in all stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Plaque rupture and erosions precipitate thrombosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, stenosis, total vessel occlusion, and sudden death. The thin, fibrous cap overlying the lipid-rich core of unstable plaques contains inflammatory cells that include proteins such as fibrinogen and CRP, which are important determinants of plaque rupture.

Fibrinogen and CRP are associated independently with a variety of cardiovascular end points in unhealthy and apparently healthy patients. Fibrinogen is involved directly in coagulation, and CRP is a sensitive marker of inflammation and tissue damage. In patients with stable angina, fibrinogen and CRP levels are predictors of cardiac events. A CRP level of at least 3 mg per L (28.6 nmol per L) predicts more ischemic episodes and the need for revascularization procedures; fibrinogen also has prognostic value in this circumstance.

Clinical risk factorMarker association
Cigarette smokingTwofold higher concentrations of fibrinogen and CRP than in nonsmokers
Obesity, overweightSignificantly higher hs-CRP levels than in normal-weight persons
Insulin resistanceCorrelates with hs-CRP and fibrinogen
Metabolic syndromeLinear relation with CRP
Type 2 diabetesHs-CRP predicts development.

Certain cardiovascular risk factors are associated ciated with elevated fibrinogen or high-sensitivity CRP levels, decreasing the prognostic value of these markers (see accompanying table). Treatments that reduce cardiovascular risk also affect these inflammatory markers. Aspirin and clopidogrel have the greatest relative risk reduction in patients with elevated CRP levels. Statin therapy does not affect fibrinogen levels as do nicotinic acid and some fibrates, although statins have been shown to reduce the risk for coronary artery disease associated with systemic inflammation or to lower levels of circulating high-sensitivity CRP.

Measuring fibrinogen and high-sensitivity CRP levels can identify patients at increased risk for coronary events. High-sensitivity CRP levels are a better measure and more reproducible than fibrinogen levels. The Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events Trial demonstrated that combined therapy with aspirin (75 to 325 mg per day) and clopidogrel was more effective than aspirin alone in preventing cardiovascular events, and this combination may be considered, especially in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated high-sensitivity CRP levels.

The authors conclude that high-sensitivity CRP measurement is appropriate in high-risk cardiovascular patients, and that patients with elevated levels should be given more intense treatment, including weight reduction, exercise and, when indicated by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, an increased dosage of statins, or lipid-lowering therapy combined with niacin or a fibrate.

Continue Reading


More in AFP

Copyright © 2004 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP.  See https://www.aafp.org/about/this-site/permissions.html for copyright questions and/or permission requests.