brand logo

Am Fam Physician. 2023;107(1):52-58

Patient information: See related handout on temporomandibular disorders.

This clinical content conforms to AAFP criteria for CME.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial relationships.

Temporomandibular disorders affect between 5% and 12% of the population and present with symptoms such as headache, bruxism, pain at the temporomandibular joint, jaw popping or clicking, neck pain, tinnitus, dizziness, decreased hearing, and hyperacuity to sound. Common signs on physical examination include tenderness of the pterygoid muscles, temporomandibular joints, and temporalis muscles, and malocclusion of the jaw and crepitus. The diagnosis is based on history and physical examination; however, use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended if the diagnosis is in doubt. Nonpharmacologic therapy includes patient education (e.g., good sleep hygiene, soft food diet) and physical therapy. Pharmacologic therapy includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclobenzaprine, tricyclic antidepressants, and gabapentin. Injections of the temporomandibular joints with sodium hyaluronate, platelet-rich plasma, and dextrose prolotherapy may be considered, but the evidence of benefit is weak. A referral to oral and maxillofacial surgery is indicated for refractory cases.

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) include conditions that cause pain or dysfunction with the muscles of mastication or the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This rapid evidence review focuses on patient-oriented evidence for managing patients with issues related to the temporomandibular region.

Already a member/subscriber?  Log In

Subscribe

From $165
  • Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content
  • More than 130 CME credits/year
  • AAFP app access
  • Print delivery available
Subscribe

Issue Access

$59.95
  • Immediate, unlimited access to this issue's content
  • CME credits
  • AAFP app access
  • Print delivery available

Article Only

$25.95
  • Immediate, unlimited access to just this article
  • CME credits
  • AAFP app access
  • Print delivery available
Purchase Access:  Learn More

Continue Reading

More in AFP

More in Pubmed

Copyright © 2023 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP.  See permissions for copyright questions and/or permission requests.