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  1. Summarize the serious etiologies of dysphonia and identify patients who require laryngoscopy.

  2. Prescribe vocal hygiene and other appropriate nonpharmacotherapies for acute laryngitis.

  3. Describe the broad range of etiologies of temporomandibular disorders.

  4. Recommend use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for initial pharmacotherapy for temporomandibular disorders.

  5. Identify patients with nontraumatic dental conditions who require prompt referral to a dentist.

  6. Distinguish between primary and secondary etiologies of ear pain (otalgia).

  7. Diagnose and manage conditions commonly associated with otalgia.

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