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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Manual Therapy

    Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is performed primarily by osteopathic physicians, chiropractors, and physical therapists to relieve pain and improve function. As safe prescribing of opioids has become a concern and nondrug therapies for pain management are used more...


    Acupuncture is used to manage pain and a variety of medical and psychological conditions. It modulates nociceptive areas of the brain, affects neuropeptide and purinergic signaling, and stimulates production of opioid neuropeptides. There are many types of acupuncture,...

    Herbal Supplements

    Various herbal medicines have been used around the world for more than 5,000 years. Herbal medicines, or herbal supplements, are defined as any products originating from plants and used to preserve or recover health. In the United States, the popularity of herbal supplements...

    Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs

    Cannabis is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies Cannabis sativa as marijuana. The term cannabis refers to all products derived from Cannabis plants. The active compounds in cannabis are...



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