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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations


    Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the United States are high, with an estimated 6.2 million cases, and these numbers are expected to increase. Age is a nonmodifiable risk factor for HF development. Hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease are...

    Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is becoming more prevalent as the US population ages. Although the clinical presentation of HFrEF is remarkably similar to that of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the primary etiology may be different. In...

    Right-Sided Heart Failure

    When evaluating patients for left-sided heart failure (HF), physicians should consider right-sided HF as well. There is significant crossover in symptoms, and these conditions frequently are seen together. Common causes of acute right-sided HF include pulmonary embolism and...

    Advanced Refractory Heart Failure

    End-stage heart failure (HF) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Progressive and/or persistent HF signs and symptoms in the setting of optimal therapy is the hallmark of more advanced disease. Physicians must be able to recognize patients with features of...



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