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    Learning Objectives

    Key Practice Recommendations



    Sports-related concussion is a common injury in organized and recreational sports. Collision and contact sports are higher risk activities. Female athletes may be at more risk of concussion compared with male athletes; however, more research is needed. Evaluation of...

    Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport

    Exercise without proper nutrition can lead to a syndrome called relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Athletes at greatest risk of RED-S are those who restrict intake, exercise for extended periods, and limit the types of foods that they will eat. Early detection of...

    Ergogenic Aids

    Ergogenic aids include performance-enhancing substances, nutritional supplements, and a variety of techniques aimed to improve an athlete’s exercise performance capacity. Dietary supplement consumption in athletes is common and is higher in those with desire to become Olympic...

    Athletes and Physically Active People With Diabetes

    Physical activity has many health benefits in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Clinicians must be comfortable counseling patients with both types of diabetes on how to participate safely in various types of physical activity. According to the American Diabetes...



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