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These key learning points summarize the consensus- and evidence-based recommendations included in this edition. The sources listed here for each statement recommend that physicians perform or implement these actions directly in a clinical setting.

1. In the initial evaluation of patients with chronic cough, assess for red flag signs and symptoms suggestive of a life-threatening diagnosis, including hemoptysis, voice changes, trouble swallowing, dyspnea at rest, stridor, fever, weight loss or gain, leg edema, tachypnea, and a history of tobacco use.
Strength of Evidence: SORT C
Sources: Chest, Dtsch Arztebl Int, references 19 and 22

2. For patients with chronic refractory cough, prescribe a trial of pregabalin, gabapentin, or speech therapy and consider referral to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist.
Strength of Evidence: SORT C
Source: Am Fam Physician, reference 22

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