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Early and accurate diagnosis are crucial to appropriate care, ensuring timely intervention, and planning for future needs of patients with dementia. Dementia is a clinical diagnosis and should include comprehensive evaluation of patient cognitive and functional abilities, diagnostic laboratory evaluation, and brain imaging. A comprehensive evaluation for dementia includes a thorough medical history and physical examination, which may reveal important clues about the potential underlying causes of cognitive decline. A detailed medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies can help identify any contributing factors. In addition, validated cognitive assessment tools can help clinicians identify the extent and nature of cognitive deficits, and track disease progression over time. Advances in the field of dementia research, such as serum biomarkers, are showing promise in facilitating an earlier and more accurate diagnosis. With the rise of telemedicine, new opportunities for virtual diagnosis have emerged, which can expand access to care for individuals in remote or underserved areas. The use of telemedicine for dementia diagnosis is still in its infancy, but research suggests that it has the potential to be an effective and convenient tool for evaluating patients with suspected dementia.

Case 2. YA, a 65-year-old patient, comes to your office for a routine physical examination. She talks with the medical student in your office first. After talking with YA, the student tells you that YA did not know today’s date or the reason for the appointment. The student wants to know if YA should be evaluated for dementia, and, if so, what the best testing strategy would be. You and the student start to collect a detailed medical history.

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