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Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p720.html

Acupuncture for Pain - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an integrative or complementary therapy for pain. It is well-tolerated with little risk of serious adverse effects. Traditional acupuncture and nontraditional techniques, such as electroacupuncture and dry needling, often result in reported pain...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p89.html

Atypical Moles: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p762.html

Valproate for Adult Migraine Prophylaxis - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Evidence supports current guideline recommendations on the use of valproate medications to prevent migraine.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/od1.html

Common Questions About the Diagnosis and Management of Fibromyalgia - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2015 - Fibromyalgia has a distinct pathophysiology involving central amplification of peripheral sensory signals. Core symptoms are chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Most patients with fibromyalgia have muscle pain and tenderness, forgetfulness or problems concentrating,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p472.html

Antibiotic Use in Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2012 - Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1101/p817.html

Bone Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Principles - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Primary bone cancers include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. They account for less than 1% of diagnosed cancers each year and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis is challenging because of late patient presentation, nonspecific ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p205.html

Treatment of the Common Cold in Children and Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p153.html

Preventing Falls in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.html

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Diagnosis and Management - American Family...

Sep 15, 2010 - Recurrent urinary tract infections, presenting as dysuria or irritative voiding symptoms, are most commonly caused by reinfection with the original bacterial isolate in young, otherwise healthy women with no anatomic or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract. Frequency of sexual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p638.html

Updated Guidelines on Outpatient Anticoagulation - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - The American College of Chest Physicians provides recommendations for the use of anticoagulant medications for several indications that are important in the primary care setting. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, is recommended for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p556.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance in Individuals at Increased Risk - ...

Jan 15, 2018 - Individuals at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer include those with a personal or family history of advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer, a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, or genetic polyposis syndromes. In general, these persons should undergo more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p111.html

Aripiprazole vs. Placebo or Haloperidol for Schizophrenia - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Aripiprazole was shown to have one major benefit over placebo, but favorable outcomes with haloperidol throw its effectiveness into question. Are the differences merely anomalies?

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p877.html

Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Heat-related illnesses comprise a spectrum of syndromes resulting from disruption of thermoregulation in people exposed to high environmental heat. Symptoms range from heat edema and exercise-associated muscle cramps to exercise-associated collapse, heat exhaustion, and life-threatening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p482.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

School Absenteeism in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - Frequent school absenteeism has immediate and long-term negative effects on academic performance, social functioning, high school and college graduation rates, adult income, health, and life expectancy. Previous research focused on distinguishing between truancy and anxiety-driven ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p738.html

Headache - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on headaches and related issues, including cluster headaches, migraines, tension-type headaches, and treatment of headaches. This collection features AFP content on headaches and related issues, including cluster headaches, migraines, tension-type ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=10

Liberal vs. Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Acutely Ill - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - This review compares liberal and conservative oxygen therapy in acutely ill adults and their effect on mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, and longest follow-up) and morbidity (disability at longest follow-up, risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia, any hospital-acquired infection, and length ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/od1.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2018 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - In 2018, through regular surveillance of more than 110 English-language research journals, 255 research studies met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Using a validated tool, physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p565.html

Common Questions About Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2014 - Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a common musculoskeletal condition in newborns. Infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip, whether treated or untreated, have a higher incidence of early-onset hip osteoarthritis in adulthood. Evidence to support universal screening by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html

The Generalized Rash: Part I. Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2010 - Physicians often have difficulty diagnosing a generalized rash because many different conditions produce similar rashes, and a single condition can result in different rashes with varied appearances. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is critically important to make treatment decisions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p726.html

Type 1 Diabetes: Management Strategies - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2018 - There is considerable benefit of tight glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Tight blood glucose control dramatically decreases the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Although glycemic goals should be individualized, most nonpregnant adults ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p154.html

Blood Product Transfusion in Adults: Indications, Adverse Reactions, and Modifications ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Millions of units of blood products are transfused annually to patients in the United States. Red blood cells are transfused to improve oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with or at high risk of developing symptomatic anemia. Restrictive transfusion thresholds with lower hemoglobin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p30.html

Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2020 - Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside of the uterine cavity. In the United States, the estimated prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 1% to 2%, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy accounts for 2.7% of pregnancy-related deaths. Risk factors include a history of pelvic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p599.html

Early Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Does early invasive management help patients with unstable angina or acute non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in reducing occurence of death, myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, and rehospitalization at six- to 12-month follow-up? Find out.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/od1.html

Diagnosis and Management of Genital Ulcers - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2012 - Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p254.html

Newborn Circumcision Techniques - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p680.html

When to Order Contrast-Enhanced CT - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Family physicians often must determine the most appropriate diagnostic tests to order for their patients. It is essential to know the types of contrast agents, their risks, contraindications, and common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced computed tomography is appropriate. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p312.html

Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p44.html

Unintentional Weight Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Unintentional weight loss in persons older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most common etiologies are malignancy, nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease, and psychiatric conditions. Overall, nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p718.html

The Adult Well Male Examination - American Family Physician

May 15, 2012 - The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p964.html

Hormone Therapy for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal ...

Oct 1, 2018 - No benefit was observed in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/od1.html

Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - Underuse and overuse of medical interventions, failure to use interventions known to be effective, and provision of tests or interventions in which benefits do not exceed harms are types of low-value care. The Lown Institute’s Right Care Alliance Children’s Health Council identified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p376.html

Pneumococcal Vaccines in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Medicine by the ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Pneumococcal vaccines had no significant effect on mortality from cardiorespiratory disease when compared with control and had no significant effect on all-cause mortality. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p463.html

Urine Drug Tests: Ordering and Interpreting Results - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Urine drug testing is an essential component of monitoring patients who are receiving long-term opioid therapy, and it has been suggested for patients receiving long-term benzodiazepine or stimulant therapy. Family physicians should be familiar with the characteristics and capabilities ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p33.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Prevention - American Family Physician

May 15, 2018 - Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p658.html

Terbinafine for Onychomycosis - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2018 - Preliminary evidence indicates that combining terbinafine with an azole appears to be superior to terbinafine alone. Further study is necessary to compare combined treatment with terbinafine plus an azole vs. terbinafine alone.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/od1.html

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Diverticulitis - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Uncomplicated diverticulitis is localized diverticular inflammation, whereas complicated diverticulitis is diverticular inflammation associated with an abscess, phlegmon, fistula, obstruction, bleeding, or perforation. Patients with acute diverticulitis may present with left lower ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p612.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Infertility - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2015 - Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p308.html

Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p786.html

Controlled Cord Traction During the Third Stage of Labor - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Mar 1, 2016 - The overall risk-to-benefit ratio of controlled cord traction is unclear. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/od1.html

Evaluation of Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2010 - Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of less than the 5th percentile for age. Causes vary by age. Most children with anemia are asymptomatic, and the condition is detected on screening laboratory evaluation. Screening is recommended only for high-risk children. Anemia is classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/p1462.html

Intimate Partner Violence - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent worldwide health problem, affecting women more commonly than men. IPV is underreported and underrecognized by health care professionals. Even when IPV is recognized, it remains an underaddressed issue. In addition to physical injury and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p646.html

Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p380.html

Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p797.html

Approach to Acute Headache in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2013 - Approximately one-half of the adult population worldwide is affected by a headache disorder. The International Headache Society classification and diagnostic criteria can help physicians differentiate primary headaches (e.g., tension, migraine, cluster) from secondary headaches (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/p682.html

Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p588.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urethritis in Men - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Symptoms of urethritis in men typically include urethral discharge, penile itching or tingling, and dysuria. A diagnosis can be made if at least one of the following is present: discharge, a positive result on a leukocyte esterase test in firstvoid urine, or at least 10 white blood ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p873.html

Nongenital Herpes Simplex Virus - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2010 - Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1075.html

Pelvic Organ Prolapse - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Pelvic organ prolapse is the descent of one or more of the anterior vaginal wall, posterior vaginal wall, the uterus (cervix), or the apex of the vagina (vaginal vault or cuff scar after hysterectomy). Prevalence increases with age. The cause of prolapse is multifactorial but is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p179.html

Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders - American ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p807.html

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family...

Apr 1, 2015 - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.html

Interventional Radiology: Indications and Best Practices - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Interventional radiology employs image-guided techniques to perform minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is often used to place central venous catheters and subcutaneous ports, with some evidence of benefit over surgical placement. Arterial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p547.html

Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on prenatal care and related issues, including preconception care, folic acid, medication safety, nausea and vomiting, pregnancy complications, and prenatal screening. This collection features AFP content on prenatal care and related issues, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=25

Screening and Counseling Adolescents and Young Adults: A Framework for Comprehensive ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Healthy development is likely to occur when an adolescent’s risk factors are limited and when protective factors are fostered. Healthy development is further encouraged when youth feel valued, empowered, and form healthy social connections. Threats to the well-being of adolescents ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p147.html

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Adults: Evaluation and Management - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is defined as hemorrhage from the mouth to the ligament of Treitz. Common risk factors for upper GI bleeding include prior upper GI bleeding, anticoagulant use, high-dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and older age. Causes of upper GI ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p294.html

Beta Blockers Compared with Other Drug Options for the Treatment of Hypertension - ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Although beta blockers seem to have a positive impact on patient-oriented evidence that matters in patients with hypertension, they appear to be inferior when compared with other medications.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/od1.html

Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Bladder cancer is the sixth most prevalent malignancy in the United States and causes more than 16,000 deaths annually. The most common clinical presentation is asymptomatic hematuria, which should prompt evaluation with cystoscopy, renal function testing, and upper urinary tract ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p507.html

Cutaneous Cryosurgery for Common Skin Conditions - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Cryosurgery is the application of freezing temperatures to achieve the destruction of tissue. Cutaneous cryosurgery has become a commonly performed outpatient procedure because of the combination of its safety, effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, lack of need for injectable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p399.html

Pregabalin (Lyrica) for Acute Fibromyalgia Pain - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

May 1, 2018 - Pregabalin (Lyrica) provides good pain relief to some patients with acute fibromyalgia pain but does not work for most persons. Learn more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/od1.html

Evaluation and Diagnosis of Wrist Pain: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - Patients with wrist pain commonly present with an acute injury or spontaneous onset of pain without a definite traumatic event. A fall onto an outstretched hand can lead to a scaphoid fracture, which is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Conventional radiography alone can miss up ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p568.html

Tap Water vs. Sterile Saline for Wound Irrigation - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Aug 1, 2015 - Studies show that there was no significant difference and none were harmed by using tap water. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/od1.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2011 - Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1234.html

Surveillance of the Adult Cancer Survivor - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2015 - The term cancer survivor refers to anyone living with a diagnosis of cancer. As the U.S. population ages, cancer screening increases, and cancer treatments improve, millions more Americans will be classified as cancer survivors in the future. Although many survivors wish to continue ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p29.html

Common Tongue Conditions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2010 - Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0301/p627.html

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2020 - Cerebral palsy, which occurs in two to three out of 1,000 live births, has multiple etiologies resulting in brain injury that affects movement, posture, and balance. The movement disorders associated with cerebral palsy are categorized as spasticity, dyskinesia, ataxia, or mixed/other. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/p213.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acne - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2012 - Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is the most common skin disorder in the United States. Therapy targets the four factors responsible for lesion formation: increased sebum production, hyperkeratinization, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and the resultant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1015/p734.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2016 - Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes patients to temporarily stop or decrease their breathing repeatedly during sleep. This results in fragmented, nonrestful sleep that can lead to symptoms such as morning headache and daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p355.html

Stents for Stable Coronary Artery Disease - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Most published trials fail to show a benefit from coronary stenting in patients with stable obstructive coronary artery disease. However, stent technology has evolved significantly in recent years, and it is possible that newer-generation drug-eluting stents may offer different results.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/od1.html

Recreational Waterborne Illnesses: Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

May 1, 2017 - Illness after recreational water activities can be caused by a variety of agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, algae, and even chlorine gas. These illnesses are more common in summer. Waterborne illnesses are underreported because most recreational activity occurs in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p554.html

Bronchodilators for Bronchiolitis - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2015 - Studies show that none were helped and the impact of harms such as decreased oxygen saturation and tachycardia was uncertain.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/od1.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p771.html

Caring for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Persons: What Clinicians Should Know - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Persons whose experienced or expressed gender differs from their sex assigned at birth may identify as transgender. Transgender and gender-diverse persons may have gender dysphoria (i.e., distress related to this incongruence) and often face substantial health care disparities and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p645.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include acute onset, profound hypoxemia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and the absence of left atrial hypertension. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p352.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

The Pretravel Consultation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler’s anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler’s diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p620.html

Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2012 - Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative disorder of the articular cartilage associated with hypertrophic bone changes. Risk factors include genetics, female sex, past trauma, advancing age, and obesity. The diagnosis is based on a history of joint pain worsened by movement, which can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p49.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Evaluation and Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Premenopausal Women - ...

Jan 1, 2012 - Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p35.html

Reducing the Risk of Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older patients presenting to offices, hospitals, and extended care facilities. These events are potentially preventable up to 50 percent of the time. Common serious manifestations include falls, orthostatic hypotension, heart failure, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p331.html

Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2011 - Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis are the most common infectious causes of vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the normal lactobacilli of the vagina are replaced by mostly anaerobic bacteria. Diagnosis is commonly made using the Amsel criteria, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p807.html

Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After MI Reduces Major Adverse Cardiac Events - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - In patients who are stable one year post-MI, prolonged use of dual antiplatelet therapy may be an effective treatment to decrease major cardiac events and cardiovascular mortality.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/od1.html

Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 15, 2020 - Evaluation and management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding focus on etiologies originating distally to the ligament of Treitz. Diverticular disease is the most common source, accounting for 40% of cases. Hemorrhoids, angiodysplasia, infectious colitis, and inflammatory bowel ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/p206.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Developmental Delay: When and How to Screen - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - An estimated 15% of children in the United States have at least one developmental delay, yet less than one-fifth of those children receive early intervention services before three years of age. Many barriers exist to implementing initial screening and referral, but screening tools can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p36.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Acute Pain - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - The approach to patients with acute pain begins by identifying the underlying cause and a disease-specific treatment. The first-line pharmacologic agent for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain is acetaminophen or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The choice ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p766.html

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related issues, including acute and chronic COPD, spirometry, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, corticosteriods, and pulmonary complications. This collection features AFP content on chronic ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=32

Recurrent Ischemic Stroke: Strategies for Prevention - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Recurrent strokes make up almost 25% of the nearly 800,000 strokes that occur annually in the United States. Risk factors for ischemic stroke include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, and obesity. Lifestyle modifications, including tobacco cessation, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p436.html

Primary Care for Refugees: Challenges and Opportunities - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2017 - Since 1975, more than 3 million refugees have settled in the United States, fleeing unrest, conflict, and persecution. Refugees represent diverse ethnic, cultural, religious, socioeconomic, and educational backgrounds. Despite this heterogeneity, there are commonalities in the refugee ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/p112.html

The Role of BNP Testing in Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are simple and objective measures of cardiac function. These measurements can be used to diagnose heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction, and using them has been shown to save money in the emergency department setting. The high negative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1893.html

Costochondritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Costochondritis, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of ribs or chondrosternal joints of the anterior chest wall, is a common condition seen in patients presenting to the physician's office and emergency department. Palpation of the affected chondrosternal joints of the chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p617.html

The Limping Child: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2009 - Deviations from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. In most children, limping is caused by a mild, self-limiting event, such as a contusion, strain, or sprain. In some cases, however, a limp can be a sign of a serious or even ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/p215.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Constipation in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Childhood constipation is common and almost always functional without an organic etiology. Stool retention can lead to fecal incontinence in some patients. Often, a medical history and physical examination are sufficient to diagnose functional constipation. Further evaluation for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p82.html

Complementary/Integrative Therapies That Work: A Review of the Evidence - American ...

Sep 1, 2016 - Significant evidence supports the effectiveness and safety of several complementary or integrative treatment approaches to common primary care problems. Acupuncture is effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Mind-body interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy, yoga,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p369.html

Delirium in Older Persons: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating syndrome of altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It is common in older persons in the hospital and long-term care facilities and may indicate a life-threatening condition. Assessment for and prevention of delirium should occur at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p150.html

Dental Problems in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2018 - Oral health directly affects overall health and quality of life. More Americans lack dental insurance than medical insurance. Patients with poor oral health are more likely to have respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and diabetes mellitus. Early ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p654.html

Neuropsychological Evaluations in Adults - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Neuropsychologists provide detailed assessments of cognitive and emotional functioning that often cannot be obtained through other diagnostic means. They use standardized assessment tools and integrate the findings with other data to determine whether cognitive decline has occurred, to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p101.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part I. History, Physical Examination, ...

Aug 15, 2019 - The goals of the health maintenance visit in school-aged children (five to 12 years) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. During the visit, the physician should address patient and parent/caregiver concerns and ask about ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p213.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment Principles, and Screening - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non–small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p250.html

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