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Outpatient Management of COVID-19: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2020 - Common presenting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 include fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. However, patients may have a wide range of symptoms representing a spectrum of mild to severe illness. Symptoms in children tend to be milder and may include fever, cough, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1015/p478.html

ADHD in Children: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2020 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multidimensional chronic neurodevelopmental condition that affects 8.4% of U.S. children between two and 17 years of age and may pose long-term morbidity if untreated. The evaluation for ADHD begins when parents or caregivers present ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1115/p592.html

Diagnosis and Management of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder in Adults -...

May 1, 2015 - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) are among the most common mental disorders in the United States, and they can negatively impact a patient’s quality of life and disrupt important activities of daily living. Evidence suggests that the rates of missed diagnoses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0501/p617.html

Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2020 - Acute bronchitis is a lower respiratory tract infection, most commonly viral, that accounts for a significant number of health care visits. This review discusses the benefits and harms of antibiotics for acute bronchitis or acute productive cough.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/od2.html

Hemorrhoids: Diagnosis and Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Many Americans between 45 and 65 years of age experience hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidal size, thrombosis, and location (i.e., proximal or distal to the dentate line) determine the extent of pain or discomfort. The history and physical examination must assess for risk factors and clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p172.html

Gout: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2020 - Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in joints and tissues. Risk factors include male sex; obesity; hypertension; alcohol intake; diuretic use; a diet rich in meat and seafood; chronic kidney disease; a diet heavy in fructose-rich food and beverages; being a member of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1101/p533.html

The Mental Status Examination - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - The mental status examination includes general observations made during the clinical encounter, as well as specific testing based on the needs of the patient and physician. Multiple cognitive functions may be tested, including attention, executive functioning, gnosia, language, memory, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p635.html

Atopic Dermatitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2020 - Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin disease affecting one in 10 people in their lifetime. Atopic dermatitis is caused by a complex interaction of immune dysregulation, epidermal gene mutations, and environmental factors that disrupts ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p590.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: Common Questions and Answers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as fasting serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per dL or higher, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Severely elevated triglyceride levels (500 mg per dL or higher) increase the risk of pancreatitis. Common risk factors for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p347.html

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by hyperinflation of the lungs, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Learn more about the benefits and harms of using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for exacerbation of COPD.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/od1.html

Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Drug interactions are common in the primary care setting and are usually predictable. Identifying the most important and clinically relevant drug interactions in primary care is essential to patient safety. Strategies for reducing the risk of drug-drug interactions include minimizing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p558.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Depression: Screening and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - Depression affects an estimated 8% of persons in the United States and accounts for more than $210 billion in health care costs annually. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend screening for depression in the general adult ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p508.html

Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p363.html

Differential Diagnosis of Polyarticular Arthritis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2015 - Polyarticular arthritis is commonly encountered in clinical settings and has multiple etiologies. The first step is to distinguish between true articular pain and nonarticular or periarticular conditions by recognizing clinical patterns through the history and physical examination. Once...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p35.html

Acute and Chronic Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2017 - Urticaria commonly presents with intensely pruritic wheals, sometimes with edema of the subcutaneous or interstitial tissue. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 20%. Although often self-limited and benign, it can cause significant discomfort, continue for months to years, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p717.html

Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2017 - Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient’s quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0915/p371.html

Acne Vulgaris: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Acne vulgaris is the most prevalent chronic skin disease in the United States, affecting nearly 50 million people per year, mostly adolescents and young adults. Potential sequelae of acne, such as scarring, dyspigmentation, and low self-esteem, may result in significant morbidity. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p475.html

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy or Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening in...

Aug 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing both reduce the risk of death from colorectal cancer. The study did not provide a clear answer regarding a superior screening modality, so the decision to choose one test over ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/od1.html

Acute Migraine Headache: Treatment Strategies - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2018 - Migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent attacks. Acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, antiemetics, ergot alkaloids, and combination analgesics have evidence supporting their effectiveness in the treatment of migraine. Acetaminophen ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p243.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

The Pregnant Patient: Managing Common Acute Medical Problems - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Women often see their primary care physicians for common acute conditions during pregnancy. These conditions may be caused by pregnancy (obstetric problems) or worsened by pregnancy (obstetrically aggravated problems), or they may require special consideration during pregnancy because ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Point-of-Care Ultrasonography - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is performed by a physician at the bedside and is standard practice in obstetric, emergency, and musculoskeletal medicine. When compared with formal sonography, POCUS is equivalent in screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm and as accurate in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p275.html

Functional Dyspepsia: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2020 - Functional dyspepsia is defined as at least one month of epigastric discomfort without evidence of organic disease found during an upper endoscopy, and it accounts for 70% of dyspepsia. Symptoms of functional dyspepsia include postprandial fullness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p84.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Evaluation of Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Dementia is a significant and costly health condition that affects 5 million adults and is the fifth leading cause of death among Americans older than 65 years. The prevalence of dementia will likely increase in the future because the number of Americans older than 65 years is expected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p398.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence - American Family...

Aug 1, 2017 - Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p170.html

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, limb amputation, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p103.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

The Adult Well-Male Examination - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - The adult well-male examination should provide evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being. The medical history should focus on tobacco and alcohol use, risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections, and diet and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p729.html

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p698.html

Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Osteoporosis-related fractures affect approximately one in two white women and one in five white men in their lifetime. The impact of fractures includes loss of function, significant costs, and increased mortality. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p261.html

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2019 - Academic underachievement, such as failing a class and the threat of being held back because of academic issues, is common. Family physicians can provide support and guidance for families as they approach their child’s unique academic challenges. Specific learning disabilities are a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p628.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - More than 70% of adults treated for primary hypertension will eventually require at least two antihypertensive agents, either initially as combination therapy or as add-on therapy if monotherapy and lifestyle modifications do not achieve adequate blood pressure control. Four main ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p341.html

Aspirin after Acute Ischemic Stroke - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Learn more about the effect of aspirin therapy given within 48 hours of acute ischemic stroke in reducing the risk of death, dependence, or recurrent stroke, and the chance of complete recovery.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/od2.html

Audiometry Screening and Interpretation - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p41.html

House Calls - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - The demand for house calls is increasing because of the aging U.S. population, an increase in patients who are homebound, and the acknowledgment of the value of house calls by the public and health care industry. Literature from current U.S. home-based primary care programs describes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p211.html

Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and resultant accumulation of metabolic waste products. Acute kidney injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and progression to chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p687.html

Insomnia: Pharmacologic Therapy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p29.html

Early Recognition and Management of Sepsis in Adults: The First Six Hours - American ...

Jul 1, 2013 - Sepsis is a complication of severe infection characterized by a systemic inflammatory response. Mortality rates from sepsis range between 25% to 30% for severe sepsis and 40% to 70% for septic shock. The clinical presentation of sepsis is highly variable depending on the etiology. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p44.html

Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1055.html

Amenorrhea: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - Although amenorrhea may result from a number of different conditions, a systematic evaluation including a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment of selected serum hormone levels can usually identify the underlying cause. Primary amenorrhea, which by definition...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p781.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Operative Vaginal Delivery - Medicine by the Numbers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2020 - Current guidelines from the World Health Organization do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/1001/od2.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2020 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include onset within one week of a known insult or new or worsening respiratory symptoms, profound hypoxemia, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p730.html

Vitamin D Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Observational studies have shown that those with low vitamin D levels have higher cancer and cardiovascular mortality. Read more to learn about the effect of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/od1.html

Fetal Fibronectin Testing in Threatened Preterm Labor - Medicine by the Numbers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Fetal fibronectin testing is a common clinical test, performed via cervicovaginal secretion swab after 22 weeks of pregnancy, and is used to identify women at increased risk for preterm delivery. Learn more about the benefits and harms of fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p145.html

Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

May 15, 2017 - The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p628.html

Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Antibiotics often disrupt the natural balance of nonpathogenic bacterial flora within the gastrointestinal tract. Learn more about the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/od2.html

Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Should benzodiazepeines continue to be prescribed during the initiation phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for acute relief of panic attacks? Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/od1.html

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2017 - Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0915/p384.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.html

Office Spirometry: Indications and Interpretation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - High-quality, office-based spirometry provides diagnostic information as useful and reliable as testing performed in a pulmonary function laboratory. Spirometry may be used to monitor progression of lung disease and response to therapy. A stepwise approach to spirometry allows for ease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p362.html

Frequent Headaches: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Most frequent headaches are typically migraine or tension-type headaches and are often exacerbated by medication overuse. Repeated headaches can induce central sensitization and transformation to chronic headaches that are intractable, are difficult to treat, and cause significant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p419.html

The Geriatric Assessment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person’s functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socioenvironmental circumstances. It is usually initiated when the physician identifies a potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p48.html

Tranexamic Acid for Postpartum Hemorrhage - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2020 - Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that has shown to decrease bleeding in surgical patients and all-cause death in trauma patients. Does early administration of tranexamic acid reduce the rate of death...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/od2.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p106.html

Geriatric Assessment: An Office-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Family physicians should be proficient in geriatric assessment because, as society ages, older adults will constitute an increasing proportion of patients. Geriatric assessment evaluates medical, social, and environmental factors that influence overall well-being, and addresses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html

Antibiotics for Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Medicine by ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial due to the variety of etiologies. This review examined the use of antibiotics to treat COPD in outpatient, inpatient, and ICU settings. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/od1.html

Thyroid Nodules: Advances in Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Thyroid nodules can be detected by ultrasonography in up to 68% of the general population. They are typically benign and are often discovered incidentally. The primary goal of thyroid nodule evaluation is to determine whether it is malignant. After thyroid ultrasonography has been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p298.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p560.html

Topical Capsaicin for Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults - Medicine by the...

Dec 1, 2017 - Based on low-quality evidence, high-concentration capsaicin patches reduce neuropathic pain from herpes and human immunodeficiency virus infection by 30% to 50% compared with the low-concentration capsaicin control group.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/od1.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Acute Bronchitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.html

Dog and Cat Bites - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p239.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Women - Medicine ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is common in adult women, leading to health complications such as rash and urinary tract infections. This review discusses pelvic floor muscle training for the treatment of urinary incontinence in women.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/od1.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction that can be mild with minimal confusion, or overt and severe with coma. Learn more about branched-chain amino acids for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/od1.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Sepsis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Guidelines published in 2016 provide a revised definition of sepsis: life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The guidelines define septic shock as sepsis with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic dysfunction that is associated with a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p409.html

Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Stable Coronary ...

Nov 1, 2019 - The authors determined there is no benefit from the use of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease because of the uncertainty about benefits and evidence of potential harms.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/od1.html

Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p441.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women - Medicine by the ...

May 1, 2019 - Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/od1.html

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Outpatient Insulin Management - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin may be used to augment therapy with oral glycemic medications or as insulin replacement therapy. The American Diabetes Association suggests the use of long-acting (basal) insulin to augment therapy with one or two oral agents or one ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p29.html

Preventing Spontaneous Abortion with Progestin Therapy - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - The use of progestin therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss appears to reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and stillbirth, and increase the rate of live birth. However, due to issues with the studies the authors were hesitant to give progestin their full...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/od1.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Impetigo: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p229.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Diabetes: Type 2 - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on type 2 diabetes and related issues, including blood glucose levels, diabetic complications (such as ketoacidosis and neuropathy), glycemic control, insulin management, and gestational diabetes. This collection features AFP content on type 2 ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=7

End-of-Life Care: Managing Common Symptoms - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Physicians should be proficient at managing symptoms as patients progress through the dying process. When possible, proactive regimens that prevent symptoms should be used, because it is generally easier to prevent than to treat an acute symptom. As swallowing function diminishes, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p356.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with COPD - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jun 1, 2019 - This research fails to determine whether the modest potential benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outweigh the risk of resistance. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/od1.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family...

Feb 1, 2019 - This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/od1.html

Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails that causes discoloration, thickening, and separation from the nail bed. Onychomycosis occurs in 10% of the general population, 20% of persons older than 60 years, and 50% of those older than 70 years. It is caused by a variety of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p762.html

Diagnosis and Management of Common Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia - American ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Supraventricular tachycardia refers to rapid rhythms that originate and are sustained in atrial or atrioventricular node tissue above the bundle of His. The condition is caused by reentry phenomena or automaticity at or above the atrioventricular node, and includes atrioventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p793.html

HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions - Medicine by ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/od1.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

Top POEMs of 2017 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Jul 15, 2018 - This article discusses the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2017 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. A POEM is a synopsis of a research study that reports patient-oriented outcomes, such as improvement in symptoms, quality ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p93.html

Oncologic Emergencies: Recognition and Initial Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or treatment related. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. Stabilization is focused on vigorous rehydration, maintaining urine output, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p741.html

Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2011 - Rheumatoid arthritis is the most commonly diagnosed systemic inflammatory arthritis. Women, smokers, and those with a family history of the disease are most often affected. Criteria for diagnosis include having at least one joint with definite swelling that is not explained by another ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1245.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2017 - Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p656.html

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