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Medicine by the numbers

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Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: Common Questions and Answers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as fasting serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per dL or higher, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Severely elevated triglyceride levels (500 mg per dL or higher) increase the risk of pancreatitis. Common risk factors for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p347.html

Basal Cell and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Diagnosis and Treatment - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Keratinocyte carcinoma, traditionally referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer, includes basal cell and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and is the most common skin cancer malignancy found in humans. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends counseling about minimizing exposure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p339.html

Hemorrhoids: Diagnosis and Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Many Americans between 45 and 65 years of age experience hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidal size, thrombosis, and location (i.e., proximal or distal to the dentate line) determine the extent of pain or discomfort. The history and physical examination must assess for risk factors and clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p172.html

Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Drug interactions are common in the primary care setting and are usually predictable. Identifying the most important and clinically relevant drug interactions in primary care is essential to patient safety. Strategies for reducing the risk of drug-drug interactions include minimizing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p558.html

Thyroid Nodules: Advances in Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Thyroid nodules can be detected by ultrasonography in up to 68% of the general population. They are typically benign and are often discovered incidentally. The primary goal of thyroid nodule evaluation is to determine whether it is malignant. After thyroid ultrasonography has been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p298.html

House Calls - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 15, 2020 - The demand for house calls is increasing because of the aging U.S. population, an increase in patients who are homebound, and the acknowledgment of the value of house calls by the public and health care industry. Literature from current U.S. home-based primary care programs describes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0815/p211.html

Atopic Dermatitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2020 - Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin disease affecting one in 10 people in their lifetime. Atopic dermatitis is caused by a complex interaction of immune dysregulation, epidermal gene mutations, and environmental factors that disrupts ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p590.html

Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic reaction, normally occurring within one to two hours of exposure to an allergen. The incidence of anaphylaxis in the United States is 2.1 per 1,000 person-years. Most anaphylactic reactions occur outside the hospital setting. Urticaria, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p355.html

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy or Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening in...

Aug 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing both reduce the risk of death from colorectal cancer. The study did not provide a clear answer regarding a superior screening modality, so the decision to choose one test over ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/od1.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - More than 70% of adults treated for primary hypertension will eventually require at least two antihypertensive agents, either initially as combination therapy or as add-on therapy if monotherapy and lifestyle modifications do not achieve adequate blood pressure control. Four main ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p341.html

Evaluation of Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Dementia is a significant and costly health condition that affects 5 million adults and is the fifth leading cause of death among Americans older than 65 years. The prevalence of dementia will likely increase in the future because the number of Americans older than 65 years is expected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p398.html

Acne Vulgaris: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 15, 2019 - Acne vulgaris is the most prevalent chronic skin disease in the United States, affecting nearly 50 million people per year, mostly adolescents and young adults. Potential sequelae of acne, such as scarring, dyspigmentation, and low self-esteem, may result in significant morbidity. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p475.html

Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Urinary Tract Infections in Young Children and Infants: Common Questions and Answers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in children and are associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. They have a high recurrence rate and are associated with anatomic and functional abnormalities. The decision to test for UTI is based on risk factors and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p278.html

The Adult Well-Male Examination - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - The adult well-male examination should provide evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being. The medical history should focus on tobacco and alcohol use, risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections, and diet and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p729.html

Depression: Screening and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - Depression affects an estimated 8% of persons in the United States and accounts for more than $210 billion in health care costs annually. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend screening for depression in the general adult ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p508.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Acute Migraine Headache: Treatment Strategies - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2018 - Migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent attacks. Acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, antiemetics, ergot alkaloids, and combination analgesics have evidence supporting their effectiveness in the treatment of migraine. Acetaminophen ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p243.html

Office Spirometry: Indications and Interpretation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - High-quality, office-based spirometry provides diagnostic information as useful and reliable as testing performed in a pulmonary function laboratory. Spirometry may be used to monitor progression of lung disease and response to therapy. A stepwise approach to spirometry allows for ease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p362.html

Functional Dyspepsia: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2020 - Functional dyspepsia is defined as at least one month of epigastric discomfort without evidence of organic disease found during an upper endoscopy, and it accounts for 70% of dyspepsia. Symptoms of functional dyspepsia include postprandial fullness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p84.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Point-of-Care Ultrasonography - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is performed by a physician at the bedside and is standard practice in obstetric, emergency, and musculoskeletal medicine. When compared with formal sonography, POCUS is equivalent in screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm and as accurate in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p275.html

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - Academic underachievement, such as failing a class and the threat of being held back because of academic issues, is common. Family physicians can provide support and guidance for families as they approach their child’s unique academic challenges. Specific learning disabilities are a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p628.html

The Pregnant Patient: Managing Common Acute Medical Problems - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Women often see their primary care physicians for common acute conditions during pregnancy. These conditions may be caused by pregnancy (obstetric problems) or worsened by pregnancy (obstetrically aggravated problems), or they may require special consideration during pregnancy because ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Tranexamic Acid for Postpartum Hemorrhage - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2020 - Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that has shown to decrease bleeding in surgical patients and all-cause death in trauma patients. Does early administration of tranexamic acid reduce the rate of death...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/od2.html

Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Should benzodiazepeines continue to be prescribed during the initiation phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for acute relief of panic attacks? Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/od1.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Frequent Headaches: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Most frequent headaches are typically migraine or tension-type headaches and are often exacerbated by medication overuse. Repeated headaches can induce central sensitization and transformation to chronic headaches that are intractable, are difficult to treat, and cause significant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p419.html

Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and resultant accumulation of metabolic waste products. Acute kidney injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and progression to chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p687.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

Antibiotics for Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Medicine by ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial due to the variety of etiologies. This review examined the use of antibiotics to treat COPD in outpatient, inpatient, and ICU settings. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/od1.html

Topical Capsaicin for Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults - Medicine by the...

Dec 1, 2017 - Based on low-quality evidence, high-concentration capsaicin patches reduce neuropathic pain from herpes and human immunodeficiency virus infection by 30% to 50% compared with the low-concentration capsaicin control group.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/od1.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2020 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include onset within one week of a known insult or new or worsening respiratory symptoms, profound hypoxemia, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p730.html

Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Stable Coronary ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2019 - The authors determined there is no benefit from the use of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease because of the uncertainty about benefits and evidence of potential harms.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/od1.html

Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p441.html

Sepsis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Guidelines published in 2016 provide a revised definition of sepsis: life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The guidelines define septic shock as sepsis with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic dysfunction that is associated with a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p409.html

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Outpatient Insulin Management - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin may be used to augment therapy with oral glycemic medications or as insulin replacement therapy. The American Diabetes Association suggests the use of long-acting (basal) insulin to augment therapy with one or two oral agents or one ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p29.html

Preventing Spontaneous Abortion with Progestin Therapy - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - The use of progestin therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss appears to reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and stillbirth, and increase the rate of live birth. However, due to issues with the studies the authors were hesitant to give progestin their full...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/od1.html

Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women - Medicine by the ...

May 1, 2019 - Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/od1.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with COPD - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jun 1, 2019 - This research fails to determine whether the modest potential benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outweigh the risk of resistance. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/od1.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Diabetes: Type 2 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on type 2 diabetes and related issues, including blood glucose levels, diabetic complications (such as ketoacidosis and neuropathy), glycemic control, insulin management, and gestational diabetes. This collection features AFP content on type 2 ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=7

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family...

Feb 1, 2019 - This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/od1.html

HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions - Medicine by ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/od1.html

Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Despite reported benefits associated with the use of hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis, we have chosen a yellow recommendation because the more recent trials and systematic reviews have shown either much smaller effect size or no benefit at all compared with the older trials. Learn more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p23.html

Oncologic Emergencies: Recognition and Initial Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or treatment related. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. Stabilization is focused on vigorous rehydration, maintaining urine output, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p741.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2017 - Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p656.html

Top POEMs of 2017 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Jul 15, 2018 - This article discusses the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2017 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. A POEM is a synopsis of a research study that reports patient-oriented outcomes, such as improvement in symptoms, quality ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p93.html

Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese - ...

Mar 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/od1.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Aspirin after Acute Ischemic Stroke - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Aspirin After Acute Ischemic Stroke JOHN CONWAY, BS, and BENJAMIN W. FRIEDMAN, MD Am Fam Physician. 2020 Sep 1;102(5):online. Details for This Review Study Population: Adults presenting with acute stroke Efficacy End...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/od2.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Foreign Bodies in the Skin: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 15, 2020 - Foreign bodies may be introduced into the skin through lacerations and soft tissue wounds. Long-term complications of retained foreign bodies include chronic pain and neurovascular impairment. Wound exploration and initial imaging with radiography or ultrasonography should be considered...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p740.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Glucose Management in Hospitalized Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - Glucose management in hospitalized patients poses challenges to physicians, including identifying blood glucose targets, judicious use of oral diabetes mellitus medications, and implementing appropriate insulin regimens. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels can lead to deleterious effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p648.html

Effectiveness of Intrapartum Antibiotics for Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid - Medicine...

Nov 1, 2018 - This review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend prophylactic intrapartum antibiotics in laboring women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid because of the lack of difference in rates of neonatal sepsis between the antibiotic and placebo groups.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/od1.html

Combined Inhaled Short-Acting Beta2 Agonist and Anticholinergic Agents for Asthma - ...

Jun 1, 2018 - Although the quality of evidence included in this review was low to moderate, the potential benefits of decreased hospitalization and relapse rates and the comparatively mild and limited adverse events suggest that patients presenting with acute asthma exacerbations are likely to ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/od1.html

Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

Chewing Gum for Reducing Post-Cesarean Section Ileus - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Although the current body of literature suggests a need for higher-quality, more robust research, the simplicity, frugality, and safety of chewing gum makes it a viable option to offer women undergoing cesarean section.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/od2.html

Hyperpronation Method for Reduction of Nursemaid's Elbow - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

May 15, 2018 - Although data are limited, the results have consistently shown a higher rate of success with first attempt reduction of nursemaids' elbow when the hyperpronation method was used. For other outcomes, including pain and adverse effects such as bruising, no conclusions could be drawn ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/od2.html

The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Fracture, Dementia, and Cancer After Long-Term ...

Jul 15, 2018 - Long-term hormone therapy decreased the risk of all fractures, including hip and vertebral fractures. However, the risks far outweighed the benefits of this intervention.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p117.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Hyperhidrosis: Management Options - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that affects patients’ quality of life, resulting in social and work impairment and emotional distress. Primary hyperhidrosis is bilaterally symmetric, focal, excessive sweating of the axillae, palms, soles, or craniofacial region not caused by other ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p729.html

Geriatric Assessment: An Office-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Family physicians should be proficient in geriatric assessment because, as society ages, older adults will constitute an increasing proportion of patients. Geriatric assessment evaluates medical, social, and environmental factors that influence overall well-being, and addresses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html

Combination LABA Inhalers Compared with High-Dose Inhaled Steroids for Adults with ...

Mar 1, 2018 - We designated the use of long-acting beta agonist inhalers for adults with asthma as having no benefits because of a small potential benefit of questionable clinical utility (avoiding a brief burst of oral steroids) and the possibility of a fatal harm. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/od1.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects 1% to 3% of U.S. adolescents. It is defined by a lateral curvature of the spine (Cobb angle) of at least 10 degrees in the absence of underlying congenital or neuromuscular abnormalities. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be detected via the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p19.html

Antibiotics for Otitis Media in Children - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2018 - This meta-analysis concludes that the risk of a prolonged course of antibiotics was twice as high for children younger than two years with bilateral acute otitis media than for children two years and older with unilateral acute otitis media, indicating that antibiotics might be ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/od3.html

Type 2 Diabetes Therapies: A STEPS Approach - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2019 - A concise way to evaluate pharmacotherapy options for type 2 diabetes mellitus is to use the five patient-oriented STEPS criteria: safety, tolerability, efficacy, price, and simplicity. The first-line treatment option, metformin, is safe and fairly well-tolerated, has excellent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p237.html

Vitamin D Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Vitamin D Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality BRUCE M. LECLAIR, MD, MPH; CELINE SI, MD; and JONTU SOLOMON, MD Am Fam Physician. 2020 Jul 1;102(1):online. Details for This Review Enlarge Print VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/od1.html

Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes with more than 90 subtypes. It is traditionally classified broadly as non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma. Approximately 82,000 new U.S. patients are diagnosed with lymphoma annually. Any tobacco use and obesity are major modifiable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p34.html

Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia and related issues, including dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, kidney disease, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome, statins, and triglyceride levels. This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=13

Preoperative Assessment in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Approach - American Family ...

Aug 15, 2018 - Surgical outcomes are significantly influenced by patients’ overall health, function, and life expectancy. A comprehensive geriatric preoperative assessment of older adults requires expanding beyond an organ-based or disease-based assessment. At a preoperative visit, it is important to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p214.html

Fetal Fibronectin Testing in Threatened Preterm Labor - Medicine by the Numbers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Fetal Fibronectin Testing in Threatened Preterm Labor DEAN A. SEEHUSEN, MD, MPH, and MARK SCHWADE, BS Am Fam Physician. 2020 Aug 1;102(3):145-146. Details for This Review Enlarge Print FETAL FIBRONECTIN TESTING IN...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p145.html

Febrile Seizures: Risks, Evaluation, and Prognosis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - A febrile seizure is a seizure occurring in a child six months to five years of age that is accompanied by a fever (100.4°F or greater) without central nervous system infection. Febrile seizures are classified as simple or complex. A complex seizure lasts 15 minutes or more, is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p445.html

Qvar for Treatment of Chronic Asthma - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2018 - Learn the results of a Cochrane review which studied the effectiveness of Qvar in two sets of patients with chronic asthma: those receiving oral corticosteroids and those not receiving them.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p538.html

Clostridioides difficile Infection: Update on Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection have recently been updated. Risk factors include recent exposure to health care facilities or antibiotics, especially clindamycin. C. difficile infection is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p168.html

Influenza: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - Influenza is an acute viral respiratory infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Three types of influenza cause disease in humans. Influenza A is the type most responsible for causing pandemics because of its high susceptibility to antigenic variation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p751.html

Statins in Persons at Low Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Despite the small reductions in nonfatal heart attacks and strokes, statins were not associated with a reduction in serious illness overall.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/od1.html

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease BRYAN ZORKO, MD, and MICHAEL RITCHIE, MD Am Fam Physician. 2020 Jun 1;101(11):online. Details for This Review Enlarge...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/od1.html

Venous Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Venous ulcers are the most common type of chronic lower extremity ulcers, affecting 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. Venous hypertension as a result of venous reflux (incompetence) or obstruction is thought to be the primary underlying mechanism for venous ulcer formation. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p298.html

Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children ELIZABETH A. SUNIEGA, MAJ, MC, USA; and D. JASON FRASCA, CPT, MC, USA Am Fam Physician. 2020 Mar 1;101(5):online. Enlarge Print PROBIOTICS TO PREVENT...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/od2.html

Conduct Disorder: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2018 - Conduct disorder is a psychiatric syndrome that most commonly occurs in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by symptoms of aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. Risk factors include male sex, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1115/p584.html

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from intrauterine exposure to alcohol and are the most common nonheritable causes of intellectual disability. The percentage of women who drink or binge drink during pregnancy has increased since 2012. FAS ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p515.html

Breastfeeding: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - All major health organizations recommend breastfeeding as the optimal source of infant nutrition, with exclusive breastfeeding recommended for the first six months of life. After six months, complementary foods may be introduced. Most organizations recommend breastfeeding for at least ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p368.html

Vitamin D Screening and Supplementation in Community-Dwelling Adults: Common Questions ...

Feb 15, 2018 - Measurement of vitamin D levels and supplementation with oral vitamin D have become commonplace, although clinical trials have not demonstrated health benefits. The usefulness of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to assess adequate exposure to vitamin D is hampered by variations in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p254.html

Complementary and Alternative Medicine - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on complementary and alternative medicine, including herbs and dietary supplements, acupuncture, meditation, and yoga. This collection features AFP content on complementary and alternative medicine, including herbs and dietary supplements, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=60

Short-Term Systemic Corticosteroids: Appropriate Use in Primary Care - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2020 - Short-term systemic corticosteroids, also known as steroids, are frequently prescribed for adults in the outpatient setting by primary care physicians. There is a lack of supporting evidence for most diagnoses for which steroids are prescribed, and there is evidence against steroid use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p89.html

Hypertension - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, and blood pressure monitoring and screening. This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=12

Epistaxis: Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Epistaxis is a common emergency encountered by primary care physicians. Up to 60% of the general population experience epistaxis, and 6% seek medical attention for it. More than 90% of cases arise from the anterior nasal circulation, and most treatments can be easily performed in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p240.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Adolescent use of illicit substances imposes an enormous burden on individuals, families, and communities. The types of illicit substances adolescents are using have changed drastically over the past decade with decreases in alcohol use (including binge alcohol use) offset by increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p689.html

Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy AHMED HAMED, MD; AMIRA HAMED, MD; and KARISSA LAMBERT, MD Am Fam Physician. 2020 Jan 1;101(1):online. Enlarge Print BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS FOR...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/od1.html

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