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Medicine by the numbers

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Vitamin D Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Observational studies have shown that those with low vitamin D levels have higher cancer and cardiovascular mortality. Read more to learn about the effect of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/od1.html

Fetal Fibronectin Testing in Threatened Preterm Labor - Medicine by the Numbers - ... Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Fetal fibronectin testing is a common clinical test, performed via cervicovaginal secretion swab after 22 weeks of pregnancy, and is used to identify women at increased risk for preterm delivery. Learn more about the benefits and harms of fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p145.html

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2017 - Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0915/p384.html

Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 1, 2020 - Antibiotics often disrupt the natural balance of nonpathogenic bacterial flora within the gastrointestinal tract. Learn more about the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/od2.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.html

Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Should benzodiazepeines continue to be prescribed during the initiation phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for acute relief of panic attacks? Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/od1.html

Office Spirometry: Indications and Interpretation - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - High-quality, office-based spirometry provides diagnostic information as useful and reliable as testing performed in a pulmonary function laboratory. Spirometry may be used to monitor progression of lung disease and response to therapy. A stepwise approach to spirometry allows for ease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p362.html

Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

May 15, 2017 - The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p628.html

Geriatric Assessment: An Office-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Family physicians should be proficient in geriatric assessment because, as society ages, older adults will constitute an increasing proportion of patients. Geriatric assessment evaluates medical, social, and environmental factors that influence overall well-being, and addresses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html

The Geriatric Assessment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person’s functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socioenvironmental circumstances. It is usually initiated when the physician identifies a potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p48.html

Tranexamic Acid for Postpartum Hemorrhage - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

May 1, 2020 - Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that has shown to decrease bleeding in surgical patients and all-cause death in trauma patients. Does early administration of tranexamic acid reduce the rate of death...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/od2.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p106.html

Thyroid Nodules: Advances in Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 1, 2020 - Thyroid nodules can be detected by ultrasonography in up to 68% of the general population. They are typically benign and are often discovered incidentally. The primary goal of thyroid nodule evaluation is to determine whether it is malignant. After thyroid ultrasonography has been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0901/p298.html

Antibiotics for Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Medicine by ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial due to the variety of etiologies. This review examined the use of antibiotics to treat COPD in outpatient, inpatient, and ICU settings. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/od1.html

Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p560.html

Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p441.html

Acute Bronchitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Topical Capsaicin for Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults - Medicine by the...

Dec 1, 2017 - Based on low-quality evidence, high-concentration capsaicin patches reduce neuropathic pain from herpes and human immunodeficiency virus infection by 30% to 50% compared with the low-concentration capsaicin control group.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/od1.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Sepsis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Apr 1, 2020 - Guidelines published in 2016 provide a revised definition of sepsis: life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The guidelines define septic shock as sepsis with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic dysfunction that is associated with a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p409.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Women - Medicine ... Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 1, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is common in adult women, leading to health complications such as rash and urinary tract infections. This review discusses pelvic floor muscle training for the treatment of urinary incontinence in women.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/od1.html

Dog and Cat Bites - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p239.html

Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy - Medicine by the ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction that can be mild with minimal confusion, or overt and severe with coma. Learn more about branched-chain amino acids for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/od1.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Stable Coronary ...

Nov 1, 2019 - The authors determined there is no benefit from the use of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease because of the uncertainty about benefits and evidence of potential harms.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/od1.html

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Outpatient Insulin Management - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin may be used to augment therapy with oral glycemic medications or as insulin replacement therapy. The American Diabetes Association suggests the use of long-acting (basal) insulin to augment therapy with one or two oral agents or one ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p29.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women - Medicine by the ...

May 1, 2019 - Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/od1.html

Preventing Spontaneous Abortion with Progestin Therapy - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - The use of progestin therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss appears to reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and stillbirth, and increase the rate of live birth. However, due to issues with the studies the authors were hesitant to give progestin their full...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/od1.html

Diabetes: Type 2 - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on type 2 diabetes and related issues, including blood glucose levels, diabetic complications (such as ketoacidosis and neuropathy), glycemic control, insulin management, and gestational diabetes. This collection features AFP content on type 2 ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=7

End-of-Life Care: Managing Common Symptoms - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Physicians should be proficient at managing symptoms as patients progress through the dying process. When possible, proactive regimens that prevent symptoms should be used, because it is generally easier to prevent than to treat an acute symptom. As swallowing function diminishes, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p356.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with COPD - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jun 1, 2019 - This research fails to determine whether the modest potential benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outweigh the risk of resistance. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/od1.html

Impetigo: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p229.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Oncologic Emergencies: Recognition and Initial Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or treatment related. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. Stabilization is focused on vigorous rehydration, maintaining urine output, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p741.html

HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions - Medicine by ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/od1.html

Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family...

Feb 1, 2019 - This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/od1.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2017 - Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p656.html

Diagnosis and Management of Common Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia - American ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Supraventricular tachycardia refers to rapid rhythms that originate and are sustained in atrial or atrioventricular node tissue above the bundle of His. The condition is caused by reentry phenomena or automaticity at or above the atrioventricular node, and includes atrioventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p793.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails that causes discoloration, thickening, and separation from the nail bed. Onychomycosis occurs in 10% of the general population, 20% of persons older than 60 years, and 50% of those older than 70 years. It is caused by a variety of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p762.html

Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Top POEMs of 2017 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Jul 15, 2018 - This article discusses the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2017 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. A POEM is a synopsis of a research study that reports patient-oriented outcomes, such as improvement in symptoms, quality ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p93.html

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