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Medicine by the numbers

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Genital Ulcers: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Mar 15, 2020 - Genital ulcers may be located on the vagina, penis, and anorectal or perineal areas and may be infectious or noninfectious. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcers in the United States. A diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection is made through ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0315/p355.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Aug 1, 2020 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed to screen for signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, and impending fetal death during labor. Because these events have a low prevalence, continuous electronic fetal monitoring has a false-positive rate of 99%. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0801/p158.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Foreign Bodies in the Skin: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 15, 2020 - Foreign bodies may be introduced into the skin through lacerations and soft tissue wounds. Long-term complications of retained foreign bodies include chronic pain and neurovascular impairment. Wound exploration and initial imaging with radiography or ultrasonography should be considered...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0615/p740.html

Clostridioides difficile Infection: Update on Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection have recently been updated. Risk factors include recent exposure to health care facilities or antibiotics, especially clindamycin. C. difficile infection is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p168.html

Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes with more than 90 subtypes. It is traditionally classified broadly as non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma. Approximately 82,000 new U.S. patients are diagnosed with lymphoma annually. Any tobacco use and obesity are major modifiable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p34.html

Influenza: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - Influenza is an acute viral respiratory infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Three types of influenza cause disease in humans. Influenza A is the type most responsible for causing pandemics because of its high susceptibility to antigenic variation. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p751.html

Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Benefits of Exercise, Yoga, and Meditation - American...

May 15, 2019 - Many people with depression or anxiety turn to nonpharmacologic and nonconventional interventions, including exercise, yoga, meditation, tai chi, or qi gong. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that these interventions can improve symptoms of depression and anxiety ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p620.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 1, 2020 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects 1% to 3% of U.S. adolescents. It is defined by a lateral curvature of the spine (Cobb angle) of at least 10 degrees in the absence of underlying congenital or neuromuscular abnormalities. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be detected via the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p19.html

Febrile Seizures: Risks, Evaluation, and Prognosis - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - A febrile seizure is a seizure occurring in a child six months to five years of age that is accompanied by a fever (100.4°F or greater) without central nervous system infection. Febrile seizures are classified as simple or complex. A complex seizure lasts 15 minutes or more, is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p445.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2019 - Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 12% to 20% of Americans 60 years and older. The most significant risk factors for PAD are hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and smoking; the presence of three or more factors confers a 10-fold...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p362.html

Venous Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Venous ulcers are the most common type of chronic lower extremity ulcers, affecting 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. Venous hypertension as a result of venous reflux (incompetence) or obstruction is thought to be the primary underlying mechanism for venous ulcer formation. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p298.html

Short-Term Systemic Corticosteroids: Appropriate Use in Primary Care - American Family ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jan 15, 2020 - Short-term systemic corticosteroids, also known as steroids, are frequently prescribed for adults in the outpatient setting by primary care physicians. There is a lack of supporting evidence for most diagnoses for which steroids are prescribed, and there is evidence against steroid use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0115/p89.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Adolescent use of illicit substances imposes an enormous burden on individuals, families, and communities. The types of illicit substances adolescents are using have changed drastically over the past decade with decreases in alcohol use (including binge alcohol use) offset by increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p689.html

Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia and related issues, including dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, kidney disease, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome, statins, and triglyceride levels. This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=13

Cirrhosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Dec 15, 2019 - Cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Newer research has established that liver fibrosis is a dynamic process and that early cirrhosis may be reversible. Only one in three people with cirrhosis knows they have it. Most patients with cirrhosis remain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/p759.html

Type 2 Diabetes Therapies: A STEPS Approach - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2019 - A concise way to evaluate pharmacotherapy options for type 2 diabetes mellitus is to use the five patient-oriented STEPS criteria: safety, tolerability, efficacy, price, and simplicity. The first-line treatment option, metformin, is safe and fairly well-tolerated, has excellent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p237.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Complementary and Alternative Medicine - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on complementary and alternative medicine, including herbs and dietary supplements, acupuncture, meditation, and yoga. This collection features AFP content on complementary and alternative medicine, including herbs and dietary supplements, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=60

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - High-quality evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not prevent mortality (all-cause or cardiovascular) or cardiovascular disease events when used as primary or secondary prevention. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p209.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Headache - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on headaches and related issues, including cluster headaches, migraines, tension-type headaches, and treatment of headaches. This collection features AFP content on headaches and related issues, including cluster headaches, migraines, tension-type ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=10

Primary Care for Persons Who Inject Drugs - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p109.html

Basal Cell and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Diagnosis and Treatment - American ... Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Keratinocyte carcinoma, traditionally referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer, includes basal cell and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and is the most common skin cancer malignancy found in humans. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends counseling about minimizing exposure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p339.html

Beware of False-Positive Results with SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Tests - Letters to the Editor...

Jul 1, 2020 - Letters to the Editor from regarding false-positive results with SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests.

American Family Physician : Letter

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p5a.html

Hypertension - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, and blood pressure monitoring and screening. This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=12

Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Sep 15, 2020 - Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic reaction, normally occurring within one to two hours of exposure to an allergen. The incidence of anaphylaxis in the United States is 2.1 per 1,000 person-years. Most anaphylactic reactions occur outside the hospital setting. Urticaria, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0915/p355.html

Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Heat-related illnesses comprise a spectrum of syndromes resulting from disruption of thermoregulation in people exposed to high environmental heat. Symptoms range from heat edema and exercise-associated muscle cramps to exercise-associated collapse, heat exhaustion, and life-threatening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p482.html

Blood Product Transfusion in Adults: Indications, Adverse Reactions, and Modifications ... Restricted content. Login required.

Jul 1, 2020 - Millions of units of blood products are transfused annually to patients in the United States. Red blood cells are transfused to improve oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with or at high risk of developing symptomatic anemia. Restrictive transfusion thresholds with lower hemoglobin ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0701/p30.html

School Absenteeism in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2018 - Frequent school absenteeism has immediate and long-term negative effects on academic performance, social functioning, high school and college graduation rates, adult income, health, and life expectancy. Previous research focused on distinguishing between truancy and anxiety-driven ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p738.html

Urine Drug Tests: Ordering and Interpreting Results - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Urine drug testing is an essential component of monitoring patients who are receiving long-term opioid therapy, and it has been suggested for patients receiving long-term benzodiazepine or stimulant therapy. Family physicians should be familiar with the characteristics and capabilities ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p33.html

Acupuncture for Pain - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an integrative or complementary therapy for pain. It is well-tolerated with little risk of serious adverse effects. Traditional acupuncture and nontraditional techniques, such as electroacupuncture and dry needling, often result in reported pain...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p89.html

Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

May 15, 2020 - Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside of the uterine cavity. In the United States, the estimated prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 1% to 2%, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy accounts for 2.7% of pregnancy-related deaths. Risk factors include a history of pelvic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p599.html

Asthma - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on asthma and related issues, including allergens, beta agonists, chronic cough, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, inhalers, and wheezing. This collection features AFP content on asthma and related issues, including allergens, beta agonists, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=3

Respiratory Tract Infections - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2020 - ...11/01/2020 Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis [Medicine by the Numbers] new 10/01/2019 Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults [Medicine by the Numbers] 09/01/2019 Treatment of the Common Cold 05/15/2019 Chronic Cough After Acute Viral Bronchiolitis: Suggestions...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=29

Liberal vs. Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Acutely Ill - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - This review compares liberal and conservative oxygen therapy in acutely ill adults and their effect on mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, and longest follow-up) and morbidity (disability at longest follow-up, risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia, any hospital-acquired infection, and length ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/od1.html

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic folliculitis affecting intertriginous areas. Onset generally occurs in young adulthood to middle adulthood (18 to 39 years of age). Females and blacks are more than twice as likely to be affected. Additional risk factors include family history, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p562.html

Caring for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Persons: What Clinicians Should Know - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Persons whose experienced or expressed gender differs from their sex assigned at birth may identify as transgender. Transgender and gender-diverse persons may have gender dysphoria (i.e., distress related to this incongruence) and often face substantial health care disparities and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p645.html

Newborn Circumcision Techniques - American Family Physician Restricted content. Login required.

Jun 1, 2020 - Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p680.html

Early Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Does early invasive management help patients with unstable angina or acute non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in reducing occurence of death, myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, and rehospitalization at six- to 12-month follow-up? Find out.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/od1.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2019 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 15, 2020 - In 2019, regular surveillance of 110 English-language research journals identified 254 studies that met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for their relevance to patients in their...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p608.html

Neuropsychological Evaluations in Adults - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Neuropsychologists provide detailed assessments of cognitive and emotional functioning that often cannot be obtained through other diagnostic means. They use standardized assessment tools and integrate the findings with other data to determine whether cognitive decline has occurred, to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p101.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2018 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - In 2018, through regular surveillance of more than 110 English-language research journals, 255 research studies met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Using a validated tool, physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p565.html

Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - Underuse and overuse of medical interventions, failure to use interventions known to be effective, and provision of tests or interventions in which benefits do not exceed harms are types of low-value care. The Lown Institute’s Right Care Alliance Children’s Health Council identified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p376.html

Interventional Radiology: Indications and Best Practices - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Interventional radiology employs image-guided techniques to perform minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is often used to place central venous catheters and subcutaneous ports, with some evidence of benefit over surgical placement. Arterial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p547.html

Screening and Counseling Adolescents and Young Adults: A Framework for Comprehensive ... Restricted content. Login required.

Feb 1, 2020 - Healthy development is likely to occur when an adolescent’s risk factors are limited and when protective factors are fostered. Healthy development is further encouraged when youth feel valued, empowered, and form healthy social connections. Threats to the well-being of adolescents ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p147.html

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